Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles

La Motte-Servolex, France

Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles

La Motte-Servolex, France
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Albert L.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Franck P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gilles Y.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Plantegenest M.,University of Rennes 1
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2017

Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-Apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods. Consequently, setting-up agroecological infrastructures in the vicinity of or within orchards could increase natural enemy presence and thus improve the biological control of pests. In this study, we focused on Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), one of the major pests in apple orchards in Europe, which causes important economic production losses. During two years (2014 and 2015), we monitored the population dynamics of D. plantaginea, its natural enemies, and mutualistic ants in commercial production cider-Apple orchards. The influences of the cider-Apple cultivar, insecticide use, and distance to agroecological infrastructures (hedgerows and flower strips) were assessed. Our results suggest that flower strips favor an increase in natural enemy abundance in the vicinity of the orchards and could thus play an important role in the production system by improving the biological control of D. plantaginea. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

Correa M.C.G.,University of Santiago de Chile | Zaviezo T.,University of Santiago de Chile | Le Maguet J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Le Maguet J.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2014

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter-and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. © 2014 Cambridge University Press .

Renard C.M.G.C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Renard C.M.G.C.,University of Avignon | Le Quere J.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bauduin R.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Initial crushing and pressing operations have a major influence on the polyphenolic composition of apple juice, therefore, we have tested the impact of variations of this step using three cider apple cultivars of contrasting polyphenolic composition: Guillevic, Kermerrien and Dous Moen. Under inert atmosphere, increased temperature (between 5°C and 24°C), increased the extraction of procyanidins from fruit to juice. The crushed apples were also subjected to four conditions of oxidation: preserved from oxidation as above, short contact with air, short contact with air and mixing, long contact with air and mixing. Oxidation decreased the concentrations of native polyphenols in the juices, especially for flavan-3-ols. The golden colour of the juices was initially enhanced with increases in saturation C* and a shift of the hue angle from yellow to orange. However, for the highest oxidation state the colour became paler and more yellow. Bitterness and astringency decreased upon oxidation, probably due to increased retention of oxidised moieties. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Villiere A.,College of the Atlantic | Villiere A.,University of Nantes | Arvisenet G.,College of the Atlantic | Arvisenet G.,University of Nantes | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2015

This study was performed to explore the relationships between some parameters of the French cider-making process and the odourant compounds of cider. Sixteen ciders were prepared on a pilot plant scale using experimental design and varying according to apple blends, pressing conditions, pre-fermentation clarification implementation and conditions, and biomass reduction during fermentation. Odourant compounds were extracted from final ciders by headspace solid-phase microextraction with a CAR/PDMS fibre, a method previously shown to provide extracts representative of the studied cider. Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. All of the parameters tested had at least a slight effect on the odourant composition and particularly on the esters, which bring fruity notes that are appreciated by consumers. Clarification and biomass reduction had a greater impact than apple blend and pressing conditions. This could be explained by the influence of the nitrogen content on fermentation rate and efficiency, which affects the production of secondary metabolites. Under the conditions tested, a juice obtained from a bitter blend of apples by a slow pressing of the pulp at low temperature, after 1h of cuvage, clarified by keeving and fermented without biomass reduction, produced a cider with the highest quantity of esters. These results could help cider-makers enhance product quality according to consumer expectations. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Symoneaux R.,University of Angers | Chollet S.,Lille Catholic University | Bauduin R.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Le Quere J.M.,Reactivity | Baron A.,Reactivity
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The impact of the degree of polymerization (DP) of procyanidins and its interactions with fructose, acidity and alcohol in a model solution of cider was investigated. Four sensory characteristics (bitterness, astringency, sweetness and sourness) were studied. At 750mg/L of procyanidins, the DP impacted astringency and bitterness but not sweetness or sourness. The medium DP (tetramer) of apple procyanidins was the most bitter and astringency increased with the DP. The impact of ethanol, fructose and acidity on the four sensory attributes was also examined. These results provide insights into how the components interact to produce the taste of cider. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Chollet S.,Lille Catholic University | Patron C.,Groupe ESA | Bauduin R.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

A large experimental design containing 72 cider-like model solutions was developed in order to evaluate the impact of apple procyanidins, fructose, acid content and ethanol on four sensory attributes: bitterness, astringency, sweetness and sourness. Based on cider composition, this work investigated the linear and quadratic effects of these four quantitative factors and the interactions between them. The results underline the role of procyanidin content (procyanidin profile and concentration) in cider, which highly impacts bitterness and astringency but also affects sweetness and sourness. Using an external validation based on a sensory evaluation by cider professionals, one predictive model for each sensory attribute is proposed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Symoneaux R.,Groupe ESA | Guichard H.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Le Quere J.-M.,Reactivity | Baron A.,Reactivity | Chollet S.,Institute Regional Agroalimentaire Charles Viollette 1026
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

The objective of this work was to evaluate whether aroma-taste interactions could occur in cider due to cognitive interactions such as a dumping effect or a congruency phenomenon. Sixteen French ciders were selected with different organoleptic characteristics. Three different tasting conditions were compared in order to evaluate the presence of aroma interactions with taste. A trained panel was first asked to assess ciders, with and without a nose clip, on four attributes: sweetness, sourness, bitterness and astringency. Secondly, they had to score the same four attributes with seven aroma attributes added. It was shown that the perception of sweetness and astringency was modified in the presence of aroma. Ciders with fruity and caramel aromatic notes were perceived sweeter contrary to ciders with hay, animal and earthy notes, which were perceived less sweet. Moreover, the aroma interaction with sweetness was sugar concentration-dependent. It occurred only in cider containing around 40. g/L of sugar. Finally, ciders were perceived more astringent when tasted without wearing a nose clip. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Guillermin P.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Piffard B.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Primault J.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Dupont N.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles | Gilles Y.,Institute Francais des Productions Cidricoles
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Monitoring during 12 years, a network of about twenty plots in commercial orchards was used to analyse the respective influence of soil, climate and trees load, on fruit quality at harvest for two important cultivars of cider apples: 'Douce Coëtligné' and 'Douce Moën'. A first analysis was conducted to compare the quality results of the two cultivars, to define the load levels and soil types able to explain some of the fruit variability, and to propose a first prediction of the quality at harvest according to growing conditions defined as combinations of cultivar × load × soil. It is shown that fruit load effect was often predominant. In a second step, the PLS method with cross-validation was used to predict the remaining variability of fruit quality around the previously defined reference value (depending on load and soil). At this stage, annual characteristics of climate from bud break to fruit ripening, were supposed to be the main factors able to modulate the reference value. Promising results were obtained with the cultivar 'Douce Moën' to estimate fruit weight, density and acidity of juice with a satisfactory quality of estimation.

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