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Baumbach J.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Hummel P.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Bickmeyer I.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Kowalczyk K.M.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | And 9 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2014

To unravel the evolutionarily conserved genetic network underlying energy homeostasis, we performed a systematic in vivo gene knockdown screen in Drosophila. We used a transgenic RNAi library enriched for fly orthologs of human genes to functionally impair about half of all Drosophila genes specifically in adult fat storage tissue. This approach identified 77 genes, which affect the body fat content of the fly, including 58 previously unknown obesity-associated genes. These genes function in diverse biological processes such as lipid metabolism, vesicle-mediated trafficking, and the universal store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Impairment of the SOCE core component Stromal interaction molecule (Stim), as well as other components of the pathway, causes adiposity in flies. Acute Stim dysfunction in the fat storage tissue triggers hyperphagia via remote control of the orexigenic short neuropeptide F in the brain, which in turn affects the coordinated lipogenic and lipolytic gene regulation, resulting in adipose tissue hypertrophy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Martens J.,Institute For Zoologie | Bahr N.,Zur Fahre 10
Vogelwarte | Year: 2014

This report is the eighth one of a series and presents the results of a comprehensive literature screening in search for new bird taxa described in 2012, namely new genera, species and subspecies worldwide. We tracked names of seven genera, six species and five subspecies names new to science which, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature were correctly described. On the basis of molecular genetic analysis three new families were erected within the superfamily Sylvioidea, new genera for species or species groups, respectively, of the Accipitridae, two within Thamnophilidae, Tyrannidae, Timaliidae, Petroicidae and Fringillidae. Three each of the new species described refer to Passeriformes and to Non-Passeriformes. The distributional areas of the new species often are minute, restricted to remote and difficult to access areas and were hitherto overlooked due to their similarity to closely related species. Due to their limited ranges species new to science are often already endangered when detected. In several cases like the Ninox owls of the Philippines, the populations in question now considered to present a new species were known since long. But only substantial studies of their songs, genetics and/or ecology led to description of new formerly unrecognized species. In a Zoogeographic context most of the new taxa, species and subspecies, originate from Palaearctic (8), followed by the Neotropics (7) and Indo-Malaya (3). In a taxon sequence by genus/species/subspecies the newly described taxa have following origin: Neotropics (3/4/3), Palaearctic (2/-/8), Indo-Malaya (1/2/1) and Australasia (1/-/-). New names were proposed for a S American hummingbird genus (already in 2008), an East palearctic buzzard, a palearctic plover and an African finch. A number of splits - namely those of known species into allospecies as the geographic representatives of a superspecies - are also addressed. But we restrict the treatment of these splits to the Palaearctic and Indo-Malayan regions. Splits markedly influenced species numbers in Chloropseidae (Leafbirds), Irenidae (Fairy bluebirds) and in the parrot genus Prioniturus (Racquet-tails). We suggest possible flaws in new descriptions and certain splits, regardless of the species concept addressed. However, in general this report should be taken as a documentation of new taxa, not as a critical review of recent changes in bird taxonomy and bird descriptions. Source


Martens J.,Institute For Zoologie | Bahr N.,Zur Fahre 10
Vogelwarte | Year: 2011

This report is the fifth one of a series and presents the results of a comprehensive literature screening in search for new bird taxa described in 2009, namely new genera, species and subspecies worldwide. We tracked six genera, six species and six subspecies names new to science which according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature were correctly described. One new family was erected (Pnoepygidae, out of Timaliidae) and two former families (Sylviidae and Timaliidae) were strongly modified. New genera were erected for species or species groups, respectively, of the Accipitridae (two), Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, Paradoxornithidae and Fringillidae (one each). Five of the new species refer to Passeriformes and one to Non-Passeres, a hummingbird. The distributional areas of the new species often are minute, restricted to remote and difficult to access areas and were hitherto overlooked. In several cases the populations in question were known since long. But only substantial studies of their songs, genetics and/or ecology their remarkable acoustical and genetic or ecological properties (in the case of the new crossbill) led to description of new species. In a Zoogeographic context most of the new taxa originate from the Neotropics, followed by Indomalayan and Holarctic regions. The remainder of taxa are scattered over Pacific islands and the Afrotropics. In a taxon sequence by genus/species/ subspecies the newly described taxa have following origin: Neotropis and Caribbean (4/2/3), Palearctic (-/-/1), Indo-Malaya (1/2/2), Nearctic (-/1/-), Afrotropics (-/1/-), Pacific Islands (1/-/-). New names were proposed for a Neotropical genus, a Nearctic species, and two subspecies, one each from the Palearctic and the Indo-Malayan regions, respectively. A number of splits - namely those of known species into allospecies as the geographic representatives of a superspecies - are also addressed. But we restrict the treatment of these splits to the Palearctic and Indo-Malayan regions. We suggest possible flaws in new descriptions and certain splits, regardless of the species concept addressed. However, in general this report should be taken as a documentation of new taxa, not as a critical review of recent changes in bird taxonomy and bird descriptions. © DO-G, IfV, MPG 2011. Source


Martens J.,Institute For Zoologie | Bahr N.,Zur Fahre 10
Vogelwarte | Year: 2015

This report is the ninth one of a series and presents the results of a comprehensive literature screening in search for new bird taxa described in 2013, namely new genera, species and subspecies worldwide. We tracked names of ten genera, 25 species and three subspecies (one additional for 2010) new to science which, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature were correctly described. On the basis of molecular genetic analyses new genera for species or species groups were proposed within Columbidae (2), Pipridae (1), and Thamnophilidae (7). Though various species concepts are concerned and "species" may have differing biological meanings, the number of 25 new bird species described in a single year is extraordinarily high. It is unsurpassed at least within the last hundred years. The new species refer to Hydrobatidae (1), Tytonidae (1), Strigidae (2), Bucconidae (1), Tyrannidae (1), Pipromorphidae (2), Thamnophilidae (5), Rhinocryptidae (1), Dendrocolaptidae (4), Furnariidae (1), Corvidae (1), Cisticolidae (1), Timaliidae (1), Polioptilidae (1), Passerellidae (1), and Thraupidae (1). Five of the new species described refer to Non-Passeriformes, the remainder 20 species to Passeriformes. In several cases the populations in question now considered to represent a new species were known since long. But only substantial studies of their songs, genetics and/or ecology led to description of new formerly unrecognized species. Most cases refer to the Neotropics.The distributional areas of the new species often are minute, restricted to remote and difficultly to access areas, often small islands and were hitherto overlooked due to their similarity to closely related species. Due to their limited ranges species new to science are often already endangered when detected. In a taxon sequence by genus/species/subspecies the newly described taxa have following origin: Neotropics (10/20/2), Palaearctic (-/1/2; one already in 2010) and Indo-Malaya (0/4/0). A number of splits, namely those of known species into allospecies as the geographic representatives of a superspecies are also addressed, but these are restricted to the Palaearctic and Indo-Malayan regions. Such splits markedly influenced species numbers especially in the Alcedinidae (kingfishers, Ceyx) and in the Pycnonotidae (bulbuls, Thapsinillas). We discuss possible flaws in new descriptions and certain splits, regardless of the species concept addressed. However, in general this report should be taken as a documentation of new taxa, not as a critical review of recent changes in bird taxonomy and bird descriptions. © DO-G, IfV, MPG 2015. Source


Bonkowski M.,Institute For Zoologie | Bonkowski M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Roy J.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of a simple decomposer community, consisting of collembola, enchytraeids and earthworms on the performance of plants in a model Mediterranean early successional grassland community were investigated. Interactions of plant functional groups and species within the soil decomposer community resulted in significant shifts of plant competitive strength and therefore are likely to affect the rate of the successional development of plant communities.Depending on the functional role of the decomposer taxa involved, either legumes, or non-leguminous forbs were more negatively affected. Therefore, increasing species numbers with in the decomposer community gradually reduced the relative contribution of forbs (legumes and non-leguminous forbs), although fundamentally different mechanisms were responsible for these effects. Surprisingly, not the biomass-dominant annelid taxa, but collembola had the strongest effects on plant performance. The grass-to-forb ratio, an indicator of successional change, shifted from 3 to 4 in presence of collembola, suggesting that indirect effects on microbial symbionts of plants were more important than classic decomposer effects via increased and more constant nutrient availability to plants. Total plant productivity, however, was not affected, since grasses gained competitive advantage and compensated with increased growth for the negative animal effects on forb performance. Our results highlight the importance of specific functional groups among decomposers for structuring grassland plant communities. However, great plasticity in the plant community through negative covariance between forbs and grasses, partly compensated for decomposer effects at the plant canopy level. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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