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Keddar I.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Andris M.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Andris M.,Institute For Zoo Und Wildtierforschung | Bonadonna F.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | And 2 more authors.
Ethology | Year: 2013

Darwin devised sexual selection theory to explain sexual dimorphisms. Further developments of the theory identified the operational sex-ratio (OSR) as one of its cornerstones, and it was commonly admitted that an OSR biased toward one sex would lead to stronger selection pressures toward that sex. Recent theoretical developments have challenged this view and showed that the OSR alone does not determine the direction of sexual selection, more particularly in mutually ornamented species exhibiting high and similar parental investment by both sexes. These developments, however, focused on mutual intersexual selection, and little is known about intrasexual selection of both males and females in species exhibiting such characteristics. The first aim of our study was to test the relative involvement of males and females in same-sex contest over mates in the king penguin, a species exhibiting mutual ornamentation of the sexes, high parental investment by both sexes, and a male-biased OSR. We investigated the sex composition of trio parades, which are groups of three individuals that compete for mates during pair formation. We found that these trios consist of a female trailed by two fighting males in 19 of 20 cases; the 20th trio was all male. The second aim of our study was to investigate the existence of within-sex differences in colour ornaments between individuals involved in such trios and individuals already paired. While limited sample sizes precluded detection of statistically significant differences between trios vs. pairs, reflectance measurements suggested that the beak spot of males in trios were more strongly ultraviolet than the beak spot of males in pairs. We concluded that intrasexual selection in our colony follows the typical pattern of mate competition observed in species in which sexual dimorphisms and OSR are male biased, and discussed the ultraviolet difference within the framework of the king penguins' colour perception. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Azevedo R.V.D.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Dias D.B.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Dias D.B.S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Bretas J.A.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: It has been suggested that genes involved in the reproductive biology of insect disease vectors are potential targets for future alternative methods of control. Little is known about the molecular biology of reproduction in phlebotomine sand flies and there is no information available concerning genes that are expressed in male reproductive organs of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis and a species complex. Methods/Principal Findings: We generated 2678 high quality ESTs ("Expressed Sequence Tags") of L. longipalpis male reproductive organs that were grouped in 1391 non-redundant sequences (1136 singlets and 255 clusters). BLAST analysis revealed that only 57% of these sequences share similarity with a L. longipalpis female EST database. Although no more than 36% of the non-redundant sequences showed similarity to protein sequences deposited in databases, more than half of them presented the best-match hits with mosquito genes. Gene ontology analysis identified subsets of genes involved in biological processes such as protein biosynthesis and DNA replication, which are probably associated with spermatogenesis. A number of non-redundant sequences were also identified as putative male reproductive gland proteins (mRGPs), also known as male accessory gland protein genes (Acps). Conclusions: The transcriptome analysis of L. longipalpis male reproductive organs is one step further in the study of the molecular basis of the reproductive biology of this important species complex. It has allowed the identification of genes potentially involved in spermatogenesis as well as putative mRGPs sequences, which have been studied in many insect species because of their effects on female post-mating behavior and physiology and their potential role in sexual selection and speciation. These data open a number of new avenues for further research in the molecular and evolutionary reproductive biology of sand flies. © 2012 Azevedo et al. Source


Haschke G.,Forsthausweg 12 | Szentiks C.A.,Institute For Zoo Und Wildtierforschung | Galateanu G.,Institute For Zoo Und Wildtierforschung | Hafner M.,Zoo Schwerin
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2013

Chronic arthritis is a known medical problem in many species also in artiodactyla. The moist coldness that exists in the latitudes of Germany enhances this condition in animals that are accustomed to dry coldness in their natural habitats. This case report shows that thermography can be used for the assessment of arthritis in giraffes. Post-mortem results of pathology and computed tomography confirm the diagnosis based on thermography. Thermal imaging is a practical, non-invasive diagnostic tool for examining animals without stress and anesthesia. © 2014. Source


Sangal V.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Sangal V.,University of Strathclyde | Harbottle H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Mazzoni C.J.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2010

Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport is a major global public health concern, particularly because S. Newport isolates that are resistant to multiple drugs (MDR), including third-generation cephalosporins (MDR-AmpC phenotype), have been commonly isolated from food animals. We analyzed 384 S. Newport isolates from various sources by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to study the evolution and population structure of the serovar. These were compared to the population structure of S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Kentucky, Paratyphi B, and Typhimurium. Our S. Newport collection fell into three lineages, Newport-I, Newport-II, and Newport-III, each of which contained multiple sequence types (STs). Newport-I has only a few STs, unlike Newport-II or Newport-III, and has possibly emerged recently. Newport-I is more prevalent among humans in Europe than in North America, whereas Newport-II is preferentially associated with animals. Two STs of Newport-II encompassed all MDR-AmpC isolates, suggesting recent global spread after the acquisition of the blaCMY-2 gene. In contrast, most Newport-III isolates were from humans in North America and were pansusceptible to antibiotics. Newport was intermediate in population structure to the other serovars, which varied from a single monophyletic lineage in S. Enteritidis or S. Typhimurium to four discrete lineages within S. Paratyphi B. Both mutation and homologous recombination are responsible for diversification within each of these lineages, but the relative frequencies differed with the lineage. We conclude that serovars of S. enterica provide a variety of different population structures. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Araki A.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Ferreira G.E.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Mazzoni C.J.,Institute For Zoo Und Wildtierforschung | Mazzoni C.J.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones.Methodology/Principal Findings:We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species.Conclusions/Significance:The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil. © 2013 Araki et al. Source

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