Institute For Zell Und Molekularpathologie

Hannover, Germany

Institute For Zell Und Molekularpathologie

Hannover, Germany

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Hanfstein B.,University of Heidelberg | Muller M.C.,University of Heidelberg | Hehlmann R.,University of Heidelberg | Erben P.,University of Heidelberg | And 29 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2012

In the face of competing first-line treatment options for CML, early prediction of prognosis on imatinib is desirable to assure favorable survival or otherwise consider the use of a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). A total of 1303 newly diagnosed imatinib-treated patients (pts) were investigated to correlate molecular and cytogenetic response at 3 and 6 months with progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS). The persistence of BCR-ABL transcript levels > 10% according to the international scale (BCR-ABL IS) at 3 months separated a high-risk group (28% of pts; 5-year OS: 87%) from a group with 1-10% BCR-ABL IS (41% of pts; 5-year OS: 94%; P0.012) and from a group with 1% BCR-ABL IS (31% of pts; 5-year OS: 97%; P0.004). Cytogenetics identified high-risk pts by 35% Philadelphia chromosome-positive metaphases (Ph, 27% of pts; 5-year OS: 87%) compared with 35% Ph (73% of pts; 5-year OS: 95%; P0.036). At 6 months, 1% BCR-ABL IS (37% of pts; 5-year OS: 89%) was associated with inferior survival compared with 1% (63% of pts; 5-year OS: 97%; P0.001) and correspondingly 0% Ph (34% of pts; 5-year OS: 91%) compared with 0% Ph (66% of pts; 5-year OS: 97%; P0.015). Treatment optimization is recommended for pts missing these landmarks. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Saussele S.,University of Heidelberg | Lauseker M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Gratwohl A.,University of Basel | Beelen D.W.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 22 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia is being reevaluated. Whereas drug treatment has been shown to be superior in first-line treatment, data on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) as second-line therapy after imatinib failure are scarce. Using an interim safety analysis of the randomized German CML Study IV designed to optimize imatinib therapy by combination, dose escalation, and transplantation, we here report on 84 patients who underwent consecutive transplantation according to predefined criteria (low European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation [EBMT] score, imatinib failure, and advanced disease). Three-year survival after transplantation of 56 patients in chronic phase was 91% (median follow-up: 30 months). Transplantation-related mortality was 8%. In a matched pair comparison of patients who received a transplant and those who did not, survival was not different. Three-year survival after transplantation of 28 patients in advanced phase was 59%. Eighty-eight percent of patients who received a transplant achieved complete molecular remissions. We conclude that allo SCT could become the preferred second-line option after imatinib failure for suitable patients with a donor. The study is registered at the National Institutes of Health, http://clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00055874. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.


Fabarius A.,University of Heidelberg | Leitner A.,University of Heidelberg | Hochhaus A.,Universitatsklinikum Jena | Muller M.C.,University of Heidelberg | And 27 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

The prognostic relevance of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unclear. The impact of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis on time to complete cytogenetic (CCR) and major molecular remission (MMR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using data from 1151 Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph +) CML patients randomized to the German CML Study IV. At diagnosis, 1003 of 1151 patients (87%) had standard t(9;22)(q34;q11) only, 69 patients (6.0%) had variant t(v;22), and 79 (6.9%) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACAs). Of these, 38 patients (3.3%) lacked the Y chromosome (-Y) and 41 patients (3.6%) had ACAs except -Y; 16 of these (1.4%) were major route (second Philadelphia [Ph] chromosome, trisomy 8, isochromosome 17q, or trisomy 19) and 25 minor route (all other) ACAs. After a median observation time of 5.3 years for patients with t(9;22), t(v;22), -Y, minor- and major-route ACAs, the 5-year PFS was 90%, 81%, 88%, 96%, and 50%, and the 5-year OS was 92%, 87%, 91%, 96%, and 53%, respectively. In patients with major-route ACAs, the times to CCR and MMR were longer and PFS and OS were shorter (P < .001) than in patients with standard t(9;22). We conclude that major-route ACAs at diagnosis are associated with a negative impact on survival and signify progression to the accelerated phase and blast crisis. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | Universitatsmedizin Gottingen, University of Hamburg, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Ghent University and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2015

Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked CASK gene cause progressive microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) and severe intellectual disability (ID) in females. Different CASK mutations have also been reported in males. The associated phenotypes range from nonsyndromic ID to Ohtahara syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia. However, the phenotypic spectrum in males has not been systematically evaluated to date.We identified a CASK alteration in 8 novel unrelated male patients by targeted Sanger sequencing, copy number analysis (MLPA and/or FISH) and array CGH. CASK transcripts were investigated by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Immunoblotting was used to detect CASK protein in patient-derived cells. The clinical phenotype and natural history of the 8 patients and 28 CASK-mutation positive males reported previously were reviewed and correlated with available molecular data.CASK alterations include one nonsense mutation, one 5-bp deletion, one mutation of the start codon, and five partial gene deletions and duplications; seven were de novo, including three somatic mosaicisms, and one was familial. In three subjects, specific mRNA junction fragments indicated in tandem duplication of CASK exons disrupting the integrity of the gene. The 5-bp deletion resulted in multiple aberrant CASK mRNAs. In fibroblasts from patients with a CASK loss-of-function mutation, no CASK protein could be detected. Individuals who are mosaic for a severe CASK mutation or carry a hypomorphic mutation still showed detectable amount of protein.Based on eight novel patients and all CASK-mutation positive males reported previously three phenotypic groups can be distinguished that represent a clinical continuum: (i) MICPCH with severe epileptic encephalopathy caused by hemizygous loss-of-function mutations, (ii) MICPCH associated with inactivating alterations in the mosaic state or a partly penetrant mutation, and (iii) syndromic/nonsyndromic mild to severe ID with or without nystagmus caused by CASK missense and splice mutations that leave the CASK protein intact but likely alter its function or reduce the amount of normal protein. Our findings facilitate focused testing of the CASK gene and interpreting sequence variants identified by next-generation sequencing in cases with a phenotype resembling either of the three groups.


Haass W.,University of Heidelberg | Kleiner H.,University of Heidelberg | Weiss C.,University of Heidelberg | Haferlach C.,MLL Munchner Leukamielabor | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European Leukemia-Net (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2:K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors and may therefore explain the cytogenetic results of CML patients. © 2015 Haaß et al.


Lauseker M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hanfstein B.,University of Heidelberg | Haferlach C.,MLL Munchner Leukamielabor | Schnittger S.,MLL Munchner Leukamielabor | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients are monitored by both cytogenetic and molecular assessments, although present guidelines appear to switch from cytogenetic to molecular criteria. Due to the increasing use of molecular measurements, it was the aim of this work to identify a BCR-ABL level according to the international scale (BCR-ABLIS) as an equivalent substitute for complete cytogenetic remission (CCyR).Methods: In total, 1,329 paired data from 557 patients of the German CML-Study IV were evaluated. The data set was divided into a learning set and a validation set. The best cutoff was determined applying a minimal p value approach to the Fisher test.Results: In the learning set, we found BCR-ABLIS values between 0.2 and 1.1 % were well suited for predicting a CCyR. In the validation set, the cutoff level of 1 % led to a mean concordance rate of 90.1 %.Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no one-to-one cutoff for BCR-ABLIS representing CCyR, but we advise to use the 1 % BCR-ABLIS in order to avoid misclassification of CCyR patients. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Middeke J.M.,TU Dresden | Beelen D.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Stadler M.,Klinik fur Hamatologie | Gohring G.,Institute For Zell Und Molekularpathologie | And 12 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

The European LeukemiaNet classification combines a heterogeneous group of aberrations as adverse-risk abnormalities. Our goal was to investigate the outcomes associated with distinct high-risk chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in patients with high-risk AML who received first, HLA-compatible, allogeneic HSCT between January 2005 and December 2008. Data from 236 patients with a median age of 55 years were included. Because complex karyotype (CK), -5/5q-, and abnl(17p) are overlapping categories, a hierarchical classification system based on the presence or absence of abnl(17p) and -5/5q- was developed. Patients with abnl(17p) had a 2-year event-free survival (EFS) of 11%(95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-25%), patients with -5/5q- but no abnl(17p) a 2-year EFS of 29% (95% CI, 14%-44%), and patients with adverse-riskAMLbut neither of the 2 marker lesions a 2-year EFS of 49% (95% CI, 39%- 59%). Notably, complex and monosomal karyotypes lost their prognostic value when these marker lesions were excluded. In conclusion, hierarchical classification of adverse-risk karyotypes by 2 marker lesions, abnl(17p) and -5/5q-, is effective in prognostication of the outcome of allogeneic HSCT in AML. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | Institute For Zell Und Molekularpathologie, University of Mannheim and MLL Munchner Leukamielabor
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors and may therefore explain the cytogenetic results of CML patients.

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