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Marendaz J.-L.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Suard J.-C.,Institute for Work and Health | Meyer T.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Safety Science | Year: 2013

Large organizations as technological universities comprise numerous laboratories which are very rarely audited by health and safety professionals due to limited manpower. Moreover, research activities are permanently progressing with a rapid hazard evolution hardly affordable for safety manager. The present paper proposes a methodology based on Assessment and Classification of Hazards in Laboratories (ACHiL). It allows professionals evaluating their laboratories' hazard level using an innovative platform. This tool includes a series of 28 specific hazards classified in a four level scale (from 0 to 3) allowing to identify laboratories with high level of danger or cumulative hazards. In fine, ACHiL, a hazard mapping platform, can be used as a safety management decision-making support tool for Safety Officers and Dean of School. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Chaparro L.E.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Furlan A.D.,Institute for Work and Health | Deshpande A.,University of Western Ontario | Mailis-Gagnon A.,Toronto Western Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2014

STUDY DESIGN.: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To assess the efficacy of opioids in adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Opioids for CLBP has increased dramatically. However, the benefits and risks remain unclear. METHODS.: We updated a 2007 Cochrane Review through October 2012 of randomized controlled trials from multiple databases. Use of noninjectable opioids in CLBP for at least 4 weeks was compared with placebo or other treatments; comparisons with different opioids were excluded. Outcomes included pain and function using standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and absolute risk difference with 95% CI for adverse effects. Study quality was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Fifteen trials (5540 participants), including twelve new, met the criteria. Tramadol was better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.66 to -0.44) and function (SMD, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.07). Compared with placebo, transdermal buprenorphine decreased pain (SMD, -2.47; 95% CI, -2.69 to -2.25), but not function (SMD, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.25). Strong opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol), were better than placebo for pain (SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.33) and function (SMD, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.15). One trial demonstrated little difference with tramadol compared with celecoxib for pain relief. Two trials (272 participants) found no difference between opioids and antidepressants for pain or function. Reviewed trials had low to moderate quality, high drop-out rates, short duration, and limited interpretability of functional improvement. No serious adverse effects, risks (addiction or overdose), or complications (sleep apnea, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, hypogonadism) were reported. CONCLUSION.: There is evidence of short-term efficacy (moderate for pain and small for function) of opioids to treat CLBP compared with placebo. The effectiveness and safety of long-term opioid therapy for treatment of CLBP remains unproven. © 2014, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sauvain J.-J.,Institute for Work and Health | Rossi M.J.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Riediker M.,Institute for Work and Health
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Great effort is put into developing reliable, predictive, highthroughput, and low-cost screening approaches for the toxicity evaluation of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles (NP). These tests often consider oxidative reactivity, as oxidative stress is a welldocumented pathway in particle toxicology. Based on a panel of six carbonaceous and five metal/metal oxide (Me/MeOx) nanoparticles, we: (i) compared the specifications (linearity, detection limits, repeatability) of three acellular reactivity tests using either dithiothreitol (DTT assay), dichlorofluorescein (DCFH assay), or ascorbic acid (AA-assay) as the reducing agent; and (ii) evaluated which physicochemical properties were important for explaining the observed reactivity. The selected AA assay was found to be neither sensitive nor robust enough to be retained. For the other tests, the surface properties of carbonaceous NP were of utmost importance for explaining their reactivity. In particular, the presence of "strongly reducing" surface functions explained most of its DCFH reactivity and a large part of its DTT reactivity. For the selected Me/MeOx, a different picture emerged. Whereas all particles were able to oxidize DCFH, dissolution and complexation processes could additionally influence the measured reactivity, as observed using the DTT assay. This study suggests that a combination of the DTT and DCFH assays provides complementary information relative to the quantification of the oxidative capacity of NP. Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Research.

Schutz C.A.,University of Lausanne | Juillerat-Jeanneret L.,University of Lausanne | Mueller H.,Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property | Lynch I.,University College Dublin | Riediker M.,Institute for Work and Health
Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

This article reviews nanoparticulate-chemotherapeutic systems that have been developed for human therapy, considering the components of the nanoparticles, the therapeutic agents associated with the nanoparticles and the clinical indications these therapeutic nanoparticles have been developed for. In this evaluation we have put into perspective the types of nanomaterials and their therapeutic indications. We have reviewed the nanoparticulate- chemotherapeutic systems that have been published, approved and marketed and that are currently in clinical use. We have also analyzed the nanoparticulate-chemotherapeutic systems that are in clinical trials and under preclinical development. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Dunstan D.A.,University of New England of Australia | Maceachen E.,Institute for Work and Health | Maceachen E.,University of Toronto
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

Purpose: Emerging research has shown that co-workers have a significant influence on the return-towork outcomes of partially fit ill or injured employees. By drawing on theoretical findings from the human resource and wider behavioral sciences literatures, our goal was to formulate a theoretical model of the influences on and outcomes of co-worker responses within work reintegration. Methods: From a search of 15 data bases covering the social sciences, business and medicine, we identified articles containing models of the factors that influence co-workers' responses to disability accommodations; and, the nature and impact of co-workers' behaviors on employee outcomes. To meet our goal, we combined identified models to form a comprehensive model of the relevant factors and relationships. Internal consistency and externally validity were assessed. Results: The combined model illustrates four key findings: (1) co-workers' behaviors towards an accommodated employee are influenced by attributes of that employee, the illness or injury, the coworker themselves, and the work environment; (2) the influences-behaviour relationship is mediated by perceptions of the fairness of the accommodation; (3) co-workers' behaviors affect all work reintegration outcomes; and (4) co-workers' behaviours can vary from support to antagonism and are moderated by type of support required, the social intensity of the job, and the level of antagonism. Conclusions: Theoretical models from the wider literature are useful for understanding the impact of co-workers on the work reintegration process. To achieve optimal outcomes, co-workers need to perceive the arrangements as fair. Perceptions of fairness might be supported by coworkers' collaborative engagement in the planning, monitoring and review of work reintegration activities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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