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Jamalirad L.,University of Tehran | Doosthoseini K.,University of Tehran | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Mirshokraie S.A.,Payame Noor University | Hedjazi S.,University of Tehran
BioResources | Year: 2011

Effects of drying temperature and artificial UV irradiation on the pH of veneer surfaces, water absorption, thickness swelling, as well as shear strength of plywood manufactured from untreated and treated veneer sheets were evaluated. Rotary cut veneer sheets from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) log were selected. The veneer sheets were dried at either 100°C or 180°C after peeling. Then the surfaces were exposed to artificial UV irradiation in an UV chamber for 1, 2, and 3 days representing a natural sun irradiation of 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively. Tests by UV microspectrophotometry showed that after high temperature drying and UV irradiation treatment, lignin condensation occurs. Also with increasing drying temperature and UV irradiation duration phenolic extractives are mainly concentrated in parenchyma cells and vessel lumens. HPLC analysis of the treated tissue showed distinct signals of catechin and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinon, which are two chromophoric compounds in discolored red hearted beech wood. Increasing drying temperature up to 180°C improved water absorption, thickness swelling, and shear strength of plywood samples. Especially, when veneers were exposed to UV irradiation (6 months), increased water absorption and thickness swelling and decreased the shear strength of plywood samples were observed.


Jamalirad L.,University of Tehran | Doosthosseini K.,University of Tehran | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Mirshokraie S.A.,Payame Noor University
16th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry - Proceedings, ISWFPC | Year: 2011

In this study the effect of high drying temperature and accelerated aging on topochemical distribution of lignin and phenolic extractives in beech wood veneer sheets was investigated on a cellular level by using UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP). For the chemical analysis of accessory compounds was used the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Veneer sheets manufactured from beech (Fagus orientalis L.) log were oven-dried at 100 °C and 180 °C after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were exposed at UV irradiation chamber for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h as the same as 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. The UV microscopic investigation show that after high drying and aging treatment, lignin condensation is occurred and phenolic extractives in parenchyma cells and vessel lumens more situated and show increased absorbance at 278 nm. The HPLC analysis of the treated tissue show distinct signals of catechin and 2, 6-dimethoxy-benzoquinon which are chromophoric structures in discolored beech wood.


Jamalirad L.,University of Tehran | Doosthoseini K.,University of Tehran | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Mirshokraie S.A.,Payame Noor University | Welling J.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products | Year: 2012

In the present study, the effects of high drying temperature and UV light induced aging on bonding quality of plywood manufactured from untreated and treated veneer layers were investigated. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm produced from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) log were selected for topochemical, chemical and mechanical analyses. The veneer sheets were oven-dried at 100°C and 180°C after the peeling process. Afterwards, the surfaces were exposed to artificial UV irradiation in an UV chamber for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h representing natural sun irradiation of 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively. Topochemical distribution of lignin and phenolic extractives of the treated and untreated veneers was investigated on a cellular level using UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP). For the chemical characterization of accessory compounds high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. Furthermore, the shear and bending strengths of plywood manufactured from the treated samples are determined in order to study the bonding quality. The UV microscopic detection shows that after high drying temperature and aging treatment, lignin condensation occurs. With increasing drying temperature and aging duration, more phenolic extractives are situated in parenchyma cells and vessel lumens which can be proved by increased absorbance at 278 nm. The HPLC analysis of the treated tissue showed distinct signals of polymerized compounds such as catechin and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone which are chromophoric compounds in discolored beech wood. The mechanical properties of plywood showed that with increasing drying temperature up to 180°C does not negatively affect shear and bending strengths of samples. After exposure of the veneers to UV irradiation (especially 6 months), decreasing shear and bending strengths of plywood samples can be observed. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Sint K.M.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,Technological Educational Institute of Larissa | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | And 2 more authors.
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Methylated N-methylol melamine (NMM) is known for its ability to enhance physico-mechanical properties, anti-fungal ability, and hydrophobicity and was therefore used to impregnate two less used and non-durable wood species from Myanmar, Bombax ceiba and Bombax insigne. Solution uptake, weight percent gain and nitrogen content were increased by increasing melamine concentrations with B. ceiba always achieving higher values compared with B. insigne. According to the leaching results, a higher degree of condensation after curing as well as a better crosslinking of NMM could be obtained at higher temperatures. However, both curing temperatures used (90 and 120 C) resulted in almost the same amount of nitrogen fixed in the cell wall. UV microspectrophotometry confirmed the penetration of the NMM into different morphological regions of wood tissues, which was again supported by the analysis of point measurement spectra of treated and untreated specimens. © 2012 The Author(s).


Kielmann B.C.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,Technological Educational Institute of Larissa | Militz H.,University of Gottingen | And 2 more authors.
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This study evaluated the combined modification and staining of ash, beech and maple wood with a low molecular weight N-methylol melamine compound (NMM) and a metal-complex dye. Wood samples were treated with aqueous solutions of 10, 20 and 30 wt% NMM and 5 wt% of the dye. The treatment caused the fixation of the water-soluble dye by the NMM resin. Vacuum pressure impregnation of unsealed wood blocks did not result in different solution uptake and weight percent gain after curing among the three species, but sealing of the surfaces of the wood blocks to allow penetration only into one direction revealed easiest penetrability of beech followed by maple and ash. UV micro-spectrophotometry and light microscopy indicated that NMM was partly deposited in the cell wall and partly in the lumens. Penetration of the metal-complex dye was shown by means of X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDX). The study shows that a combined resin modification and staining of the three wood species tested is possible and that NMM causes fixation of the water-soluble dye. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Mahnert K.-C.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,Technological Educational Institute of Larissa | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Militz H.,University of Gottingen
Holzforschung | Year: 2013

To broaden the knowledge about the chemical changes at the cell wall level of differently modified tropical hardwoods, heat-treated and N-methylol melamine (NMM)-treated samples of koto (Pterygota macrocarpa) and limba (Terminalia superba) were prepared. UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) was applied at 278 and 240 nm as specific wavelengths to analyze chemical alterations of the samples caused by heat and NMM treatment, respectively. The absorbance of koto exceeded that of limba before and after treatment, potentially due to the higher extractive content of the former. Regardless of the wood species, the absorbance of the samples increased with increasing intensity of the NMM treatment. Additionally, the absorbance of lignin within the spectrum of 230-350 nm was altered due to the NMM treatment. The functionality of applying specific wavelengths for the analysis of different modification methods of wood was proven. However, the comparison with literature did not show differences in the absorbance, which could be assigned to the characteristics of tropical hardwoods.


Sint K.M.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,University of Gottingen | Adamopoulos S.,Technological Educational Institute of Larissa | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | And 2 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2013

Wood anatomical characteristics, content of phenolic extractives, and topochemistry of two lesser known and underutilised hardwood species, Bombax ceiba and Bombax insigne were studied. Heartwood and sapwood material was obtained from logs originating from natural forests of Pyinmana District, Myanmar. The basic qualitative anatomical features agreed with descriptions reported for the species in other regions (e.g. India, Bangladesh, Southeast Asia). However, there were some light differences in the quantitative wood anatomical data among the regions due to the influence of environmental conditions. The amount of phenolic extractives obtained by gradual extraction with acetone-water was almost the same in heartwood and sapwood (about 1.2%) in B. insigne, while heartwood showed a higher amount (2.8%) than sapwood (2.5%) in B. ceiba. Topochemical distribution of lignin and phenolic deposits in heartwood tissues investigated by scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) revealed that B. insigne is more highly lignified than B. ceiba. For both species, a lower UV-absorbance by the fiber and ray cell wall as compared to that of the cell wall of vessels was observed. Also, phenolic compounds were mostly deposited in the lumina of parenchyma cells and vessels rather than in cell walls. The results further improve the knowledge on the wood anatomy and chemistry of the species and in this respect are useful in future research to broaden their utilisation potential.


Rehbein M.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2011

The initiation and progress of wood degradation of Pinus sylvestris sapwood exposed to the brown-rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii was studied on a cellular level by scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP 80, Zeiss, MSP 800 Spectralytics). This improved analytical technique enables direct imaging of lignin modification within individual cell wall layers. The topochemical analyses were supplemented by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies in order to characterize morphological changes during the first days of degradation. Small wood blocks (1.5 × 1.5 × 5 mm) of Scots pine (P. sylvestris) were exposed to fungal decay by A. vaillantii for 3, 7, 11, 16, and 22 days. No significant weight loss was determined in the initial decay periods within three up to 7 days. After three days of decay the topochemical investigation revealed that the lignin modification starts at the outermost part of the secondary wall layer, especially in the region of the latewood tracheids. During advanced degradation after exposure of 22 days, lignin modification occurs non-homogeneously throughout the tissue. Even among the significantly damaged cells, some apparently unmodified cells still exist. Knowledge about lignin modification at initial stages of wood degradation is of fundamental importance to provide more information on the progress of brown-rot decay. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Adamopoulos S.,Technological Educational Institute of Larissa | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology
IAWA Journal | Year: 2011

Wood structure and topochemical distribution of lignin and phenolic extractives in Juniperus excelsa Bieb. were investigated using a mature specimen, aproximately 80 years of age, from the Rhodope mountains, Greece. The wood of J. excelsa was found to possess the same qualitative anatomical features as those reported for other Juniperus species of the Western Hemisphere. Quantitative anatomical characteristics recorded for mature wood (heartwood and sapwood) included earlywood and latewood tracheid length, double wall thickness of earlywood and late wood tracheids, lumen diameter of earlywood tracheids and ray height. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry revealed a pronounced lignification of J. excelsa tracheids with detected absorbance values of the secondary cell wall layers being much higher in comparison to all other softwoods studied using this technique. The cell corners and compound middle lamellae were characterised by relative high UV absorbance values as compared to the S2 layers. The phenolic compounds deposited in the axial and ray parenchyma cells possessed higher absorbance values than cell wall associated lignins and had a different spectral behaviour due to the presence of chromophoric groups. According to the obtained UV absorbance spectra, more condensed phenolic compounds were deposited in the heartwood than in the sapwood.


Dunisch O.,Master School for Carpentry | Dunisch O.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Richter H.-G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology | Koch G.,Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to characterise the properties of juvenile and mature heartwood of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Content, composition and the subcellular distribution of heartwood extractives were studied in 14 oldgrowth trees from forest sites in Germany and Hungary as well as in 16 younger trees of four clone types. Heartwood extractives (methanol and acetone extraction) were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. UV microspectrophotometry was used to topochemically localise the extractives in the cell walls. The natural durability of the juvenile and mature heartwood was analysed according to the European standard EN 350-1. Growth as well as chemical analyses showed that, based on extractives content, the formation of juvenile wood in black locust is restricted to the first 10- 20 years of cambial growth. In mature heartwood, high contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were present, localised in high concentrations in the cell walls and cell lumen of axial parenchyma and vessels. In juvenile wood, the content of these extractives is significantly lower. Juvenile wood had a correspondingly lower resistance to decay by Coniophora puteana (brown rot fungus) and Coriolus versicolor (white rot fungus) than mature heartwood. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

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