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Greifswald, Germany

Wang Z.,Free University of Berlin | Burwinkel M.,Free University of Berlin | Chai W.,Free University of Berlin | Lange E.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | And 9 more authors.

Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. © 2014 Wang et al. Source

Kohlmann Y.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Schwartz E.,Humboldt University of Berlin | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research

Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a denitrifying microorganism able to use nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptors under oxygen deprivation. To identify proteins showing an altered expression pattern in response to oxygen supply, R. eutropha cells grown aerobically and anaerobically were compared in a comprehensive proteome and transcriptome approach. Nearly 700 proteins involved in several processes including respiration, formation of cell appendages, and DNA and cofactor biosynthesis were found to be differentially expressed. A combination of 1D gel-LC and conventional 2D gel analysis of six consecutive sample points covering the entire denitrification sequence revealed a detailed view on the shifting abundance of the key proteins of denitrification. Denitrification- or anaerobiosis-induced alterations of the respiratory chain included a distinct expression pattern for multiple terminal oxidases. Alterations in the central carbon metabolism were restricted to a few key functions including the isoenzymes for aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Although R. eutropha is a strictly respiratory bacterium, the abundance of certain fermentation enzymes was increased. This work represents a comprehensive survey of denitrification on the proteomic and transcriptomic levels and provides unique insight into how R. eutropha adapts its metabolism to low oxygen conditions. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Kirsch F.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Frielingsdorf S.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology

Energy-coupling factor transporters are a large group of importers for trace nutrients in prokaryotes. The in vivo oligomeric state of their substrate-specific transmembrane proteins (S units) is a matter of debate. Here we focus on the S unit BioY of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which functions as a low-affinity biotin transporter in its solitary state. To analyze whether oligomerization is a requirement for function, a tail-to-head-linked BioY dimer was constructed. Monomeric and dimeric BioY conferred comparable biotin uptake activities on recombinant Escherichia coli. Fluorophore-tagged variants of the dimer were shown by fluorescence anisotropy analysis to oligomerize in vivo. Quantitative mass spectrometry identifiedbiotin in the purified proteins at a stoichiometry of 1:2 for the BioY monomer and 1:4 (referring to single BioY domains)for the dimer. Replacement of the conserved Asp164 (by Asn) and Lys167 (by Arg or Gln) in the monomer and in both halves of the dimer inactivated the proteins. The presence of those mutations in one half of the dimers only slightly affected biotin binding but reduced transport activity to 25% (Asp164Asn and Lys167Arg) or 75% (Lys167Gln). Our data (i) suggest thatintermolecular interactions of domains from different dimers provide functionality, (ii) confirm an oligomeric architecture of BioY in living cells, and (iii) demonstrate an essential role of the last transmembrane helix in biotin recognition. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Celma C.C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bhattacharya B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Eschbaumer M.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Eschbaumer M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

Bluetongue (BT) disease, caused by the non-enveloped bluetongue virus (BTV) belonging to the Reoviridae family, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are recognized in the world, of which BTV-8 has been found to exhibit one of the most virulent manifestations of BT disease in livestock. In recent years incursions of BTV-8 in Europe have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality not only in sheep but also in cattle. The molecular and genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenesis is not known. To understand the genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenicity, we generated reassortant viruses by replacing the 3 most variable genes, S2, S6 and S10 of a recent isolate of BTV-8, in different combinations into the backbone of an attenuated strain of BTV-1. The growth profiles of these reassortant viruses were then analyzed in two different ovine cell lines derived from different organs, kidney and thymus. Distinct patterns for each reassortant virus in these two cell lines were observed. To determine the pathogenicity of these reassortant viruses, groups of BTV-susceptible sheep were infected with each of these viruses. The data suggested that the clinical manifestations of these two different serotypes, BTV-1 and BTV-8, were slightly distinct and BTV-1, when comprising all 3 genome segments of BTV-8, behaved differently to BTV-1. Our results also suggested that the molecular basis of BT disease is highly complex. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Wang J.,Free University of Berlin | Hoper D.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Beer M.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Osterrieder N.,Free University of Berlin
Virus Research

We here report the complete genome sequence of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) wild-type strain 2085, an avian herpesvirus (GenBank ID: JF999965). The nucleotide sequence was derived from the 2085 genome cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone. The DEV 2085 genome is 160,649-bp in length and encodes 78 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), a number identical to that identified for the attenuated DEV VAC strain (GenBank ID: EU082088.2). Comparison of the genome sequences DEV 2085 and VAC with partial sequences of the virulent CHv strain and the attenuated strain Clone-03 was carried out to identify nucleotide or amino acid polymorphisms that potentially contribute to DEV virulence. No amino acid changes were identified in 24 of the 78 ORFs, a result indicating high conservation in DEV independently of strain origin or virulence. In addition, 39 ORFs contain non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions, while 15 ORFs had nucleotide insertions or deletions, frame-shift mutations and/or non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions with an effect on ORF initiation or termination. In 7 of the 15 ORFs with high and 27 of the 39 ORFs with low variability, polymorphisms were exclusively found in DEV 2085, a finding that likely is a result of a different origin of 2085 (Europe) or VAC, Clone-03 and CHv (Eastern Asia). Five ORFs (UL2, UL12, US10, UL47 and UL41) with polymorphisms were identical between the virulent DEV 2085 and CHv but different from VAC or Clone-03. They, individually or in combination, may therefore represent DEV virulence factors. Our comparative analysis of four DEV sequences provides a comprehensive overview of DEV genome structure and identifies ORFs that are changed during serial virus passage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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