Greifswald, Germany
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Wang Z.,Free University of Berlin | Burwinkel M.,Free University of Berlin | Chai W.,Free University of Berlin | Lange E.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. © 2014 Wang et al.


Lazutka J.,Vilnius University | Zvirbliene A.,Vilnius University | Dalgediene I.,Vilnius University | Petraityte-Burneikiene R.,Vilnius University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2014

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), discovered in continental Europe in late 2011, causes mild clinical signs in adult ruminants, including diarrhoea and reduced milk yield. However, fetal infection can lead to severe malformation in newborn offspring. To develop improved reagents for SBV serology, a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant SBV nucleocapsid (N) protein. Recombinant SBV N protein was investigated as an antigen in SBV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Yeast-expressed SBV N protein was reactive with anti-SBV IgG-positive cow serum specimens collected from different farms of Lithuania. After immunization of mice with recombinant SBV N protein, four MAbs were generated. The MAbs raised against recombinant SBV N protein reacted with native viral nucleocapsids in SBV-infected BHK cells by immunofluorescence assay. The reactivity of recombinant N protein with SBV-positive cow serum specimens and the ability of the MAbs to recognize virus-infected cells confirm the antigenic similarity between yeast-expressed SBV N protein and native viral nucleocapsids. Our study demonstrates that yeast expression system is suitable for high-level production of recombinant SBV N protein and provides the first evidence on the presence of SBV-specific antibodies in cow serum specimens collected in Lithuania. © 2014 Justas Lazutka et al.


Celma C.C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bhattacharya B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Eschbaumer M.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Eschbaumer M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Bluetongue (BT) disease, caused by the non-enveloped bluetongue virus (BTV) belonging to the Reoviridae family, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are recognized in the world, of which BTV-8 has been found to exhibit one of the most virulent manifestations of BT disease in livestock. In recent years incursions of BTV-8 in Europe have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality not only in sheep but also in cattle. The molecular and genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenesis is not known. To understand the genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenicity, we generated reassortant viruses by replacing the 3 most variable genes, S2, S6 and S10 of a recent isolate of BTV-8, in different combinations into the backbone of an attenuated strain of BTV-1. The growth profiles of these reassortant viruses were then analyzed in two different ovine cell lines derived from different organs, kidney and thymus. Distinct patterns for each reassortant virus in these two cell lines were observed. To determine the pathogenicity of these reassortant viruses, groups of BTV-susceptible sheep were infected with each of these viruses. The data suggested that the clinical manifestations of these two different serotypes, BTV-1 and BTV-8, were slightly distinct and BTV-1, when comprising all 3 genome segments of BTV-8, behaved differently to BTV-1. Our results also suggested that the molecular basis of BT disease is highly complex. © 2014 The Authors.


Wang J.,Free University of Berlin | Hoper D.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Beer M.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | Osterrieder N.,Free University of Berlin
Virus Research | Year: 2011

We here report the complete genome sequence of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) wild-type strain 2085, an avian herpesvirus (GenBank ID: JF999965). The nucleotide sequence was derived from the 2085 genome cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone. The DEV 2085 genome is 160,649-bp in length and encodes 78 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), a number identical to that identified for the attenuated DEV VAC strain (GenBank ID: EU082088.2). Comparison of the genome sequences DEV 2085 and VAC with partial sequences of the virulent CHv strain and the attenuated strain Clone-03 was carried out to identify nucleotide or amino acid polymorphisms that potentially contribute to DEV virulence. No amino acid changes were identified in 24 of the 78 ORFs, a result indicating high conservation in DEV independently of strain origin or virulence. In addition, 39 ORFs contain non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions, while 15 ORFs had nucleotide insertions or deletions, frame-shift mutations and/or non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions with an effect on ORF initiation or termination. In 7 of the 15 ORFs with high and 27 of the 39 ORFs with low variability, polymorphisms were exclusively found in DEV 2085, a finding that likely is a result of a different origin of 2085 (Europe) or VAC, Clone-03 and CHv (Eastern Asia). Five ORFs (UL2, UL12, US10, UL47 and UL41) with polymorphisms were identical between the virulent DEV 2085 and CHv but different from VAC or Clone-03. They, individually or in combination, may therefore represent DEV virulence factors. Our comparative analysis of four DEV sequences provides a comprehensive overview of DEV genome structure and identifies ORFs that are changed during serial virus passage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Breard E.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Belbis G.,ENVA | Hamers C.,MERIAL S.A.S. | Moulin V.,Schering | And 11 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Bluetongue serotype 8 has become a major animal health issue in the European Union and the European member States have agreed on a vaccination strategy, which involves only inactivated vaccines. In this study, the efficacy of two inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) used in Europe since 2008, BTVPUR ALSAP ® 8 (MERIAL) and BOVILIS ® BTV8 (Intervet/SP-AH), was evaluated in goats immunized and challenged with BTV-8 field isolates under experimental conditions. Serological, virological and clinical examinations were conducted before and after challenge. Three groups of 10 goats each (groups A, B and C) were randomly constituted and 2 groups (A and C) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice with one dose of the two commercial vaccines BTVPUR ALSAP 8 (group A) or BOVILIS BTV8 (group C) respectively. Animals of the groups A, C and B (B: controls) were challenged with a virulent inoculum containing BTV-8. During the experiment, it was found out that the BTV-8 challenge inoculum was contaminated with another BTV serotype. However, results demonstrated that vaccination of goats with two injections of BTVPUR ALSAP 8 or BOVILIS BTV8 provided a significant clinical protection against a BTV-8 challenge and completely prevented BTV-8 viraemia in all vaccinated animals. Qualitative data showed no difference in the kinetics and levels of the humoral response induced by these two inactivated vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kirsch F.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Frielingsdorf S.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Pohlmann A.,Institute For Virusdiagnostik | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

Energy-coupling factor transporters are a large group of importers for trace nutrients in prokaryotes. The in vivo oligomeric state of their substrate-specific transmembrane proteins (S units) is a matter of debate. Here we focus on the S unit BioY of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which functions as a low-affinity biotin transporter in its solitary state. To analyze whether oligomerization is a requirement for function, a tail-to-head-linked BioY dimer was constructed. Monomeric and dimeric BioY conferred comparable biotin uptake activities on recombinant Escherichia coli. Fluorophore-tagged variants of the dimer were shown by fluorescence anisotropy analysis to oligomerize in vivo. Quantitative mass spectrometry identifiedbiotin in the purified proteins at a stoichiometry of 1:2 for the BioY monomer and 1:4 (referring to single BioY domains)for the dimer. Replacement of the conserved Asp164 (by Asn) and Lys167 (by Arg or Gln) in the monomer and in both halves of the dimer inactivated the proteins. The presence of those mutations in one half of the dimers only slightly affected biotin binding but reduced transport activity to 25% (Asp164Asn and Lys167Arg) or 75% (Lys167Gln). Our data (i) suggest thatintermolecular interactions of domains from different dimers provide functionality, (ii) confirm an oligomeric architecture of BioY in living cells, and (iii) demonstrate an essential role of the last transmembrane helix in biotin recognition. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Institute For Immunologie, Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.


PubMed | Institute For Virusdiagnostik
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2012

The development of infectiological diagnostic methodology is characterized by saltatoric, revolutionary leaps. Improved sensitivity and specificity, reduction of analytical sample volumes, increased sample throughput, reduced test complexity associated with improved user friendliness are hallmarks of such developments. Apart from purely technical amenities some innovations also enable conceptual adaptations of monitoring strategies. These include the use of diagnostic assays on-site, e. g. in the stable or in the practice. Selecting the assay which is most fit-for-purpose among the plethora of sometimes loudly advertised new technology may be difficult even for the well trained and experienced diagnostician. Standardized licensing procedures for infectiological diagnostic kits may be required to guarantee minimal norms of diagnostic quality. At the same time availability of a diversity of diagnostic kits is needed to broaden the base of diagnostic reliability. New infectiological diagnostic innovations will only be useful if the (expanded) results are transposable to the improved practical care of companion animals and farm animal holdings. In addition, the judgment of results, e. g. for epidemiological plausibility, remains a very important issue even when the test results have been produced by novel high technology diagnostics.


PubMed | Institute For Virusdiagnostik, Vilnius University and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Type: | Journal: Journal of immunology research | Year: 2014

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), discovered in continental Europe in late 2011, causes mild clinical signs in adult ruminants, including diarrhoea and reduced milk yield. However, fetal infection can lead to severe malformation in newborn offspring. To develop improved reagents for SBV serology, a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant SBV nucleocapsid (N) protein. Recombinant SBV N protein was investigated as an antigen in SBV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Yeast-expressed SBV N protein was reactive with anti-SBV IgG-positive cow serum specimens collected from different farms of Lithuania. After immunization of mice with recombinant SBV N protein, four MAbs were generated. The MAbs raised against recombinant SBV N protein reacted with native viral nucleocapsids in SBV-infected BHK cells by immunofluorescence assay. The reactivity of recombinant N protein with SBV-positive cow serum specimens and the ability of the MAbs to recognize virus-infected cells confirm the antigenic similarity between yeast-expressed SBV N protein and native viral nucleocapsids. Our study demonstrates that yeast expression system is suitable for high-level production of recombinant SBV N protein and provides the first evidence on the presence of SBV-specific antibodies in cow serum specimens collected in Lithuania.


PubMed | Institute For Virusdiagnostik and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2014

Bluetongue (BT) disease, caused by the non-enveloped bluetongue virus (BTV) belonging to the Reoviridae family, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are recognized in the world, of which BTV-8 has been found to exhibit one of the most virulent manifestations of BT disease in livestock. In recent years incursions of BTV-8 in Europe have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality not only in sheep but also in cattle. The molecular and genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenesis is not known. To understand the genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenicity, we generated reassortant viruses by replacing the 3 most variable genes, S2, S6 and S10 of a recent isolate of BTV-8, in different combinations into the backbone of an attenuated strain of BTV-1. The growth profiles of these reassortant viruses were then analyzed in two different ovine cell lines derived from different organs, kidney and thymus. Distinct patterns for each reassortant virus in these two cell lines were observed. To determine the pathogenicity of these reassortant viruses, groups of BTV-susceptible sheep were infected with each of these viruses. The data suggested that the clinical manifestations of these two different serotypes, BTV-1 and BTV-8, were slightly distinct and BTV-1, when comprising all 3 genome segments of BTV-8, behaved differently to BTV-1. Our results also suggested that the molecular basis of BT disease is highly complex.

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