Wieland U.,Institute For Virologie
Padiatrische Praxis | Year: 2017
Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of anogenital dysplasias and genital warts caused by the HPV-types included in the vaccines. Countries with high HPV vaccination rates in HPV-naive girls have seen a significant decline in cervical HPV prevalence, cervical dysplasia and genital warts only a few years after the introduction of HPV vaccination. Due to herd immunity, declines in diagnoses of genital warts have also been observed in heterosexual men in these countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination has the potential to lead to a significant reduction or an almost elimination of genital warts and of HPV-induced dysplasias and cancers. Therefore, HPV vaccination of boys should be strongly considered. Given the low HPV vaccination rates in Germany, further efforts are necessary to increase vaccination rates in young (HPV-naive) girls. All visits to the doctor should be used to implement the current German recommendations for HPV vaccination.
Matrosovich M.,University of Marburg |
Herrler G.,Institute For Virologie |
Klenk H.D.,University of Marburg
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2015
Sialic acid linked to glycoproteins and gangliosides is used by many viruses as a receptor for cell entry. These viruses include important human and animal pathogens, such as influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, corona, noro, rota, and DNA tumor viruses. Attachment to sialic acid is mediated by receptor binding proteins that are constituents of viral envelopes or exposed at the surface of nonenveloped viruses. Some of these viruses are also equipped with a neuraminidase or a sialyl-O-acetyl-esterase. These receptor-destroying enzymes promote virus release from infected cells and neutralize sialic acid-containing soluble proteins interfering with cell surface binding of the virus. Variations in the receptor specificity are important determinants for host range, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.
Ness T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Hengel H.,Institute For Virologie
Ophthalmologe | Year: 2016
Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Kreuter A.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Brockmeyer N.H.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Wieland U.,Institute For Virologie
Hautarzt | Year: 2010
Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer. As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16. Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women. Such screenings should only be performed if pathological findings result in further diagnostic steps and, if necessary, appropriate treatment. Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy. Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal. This classification is important because of the difference in treatment regimens. Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy. HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients have similar response rates to combined radiochemotherapy. However, side effects, especially acute post-irradiation skin toxicity, early local recurrences, and abdominoperineal rectal excision are more common in HIV-positive patients. Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology. © 2009 Springer Medizin Verlag.
Ren X.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Meng F.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Yin J.,Northeast Agricultural University |
Li G.,Northeast Agricultural University |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. © 2011 Ren et al.
Hage E.,Institute For Virologie |
Liebert U.G.,University of Leipzig |
Bergs S.,University of Leipzig |
Ganzenmueller T.,Institute For Virologie |
Heim A.,Institute For Virologie
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015
A human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D) isolated from diarrhoeal faeces of an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipient was found to be non-typable by sequencing of loops 1 and 2 of the hexon main neutralization epitope (‘imputed serology’). In contrast to HAdV-C, HAdV-D infections are rarely observed in SCT patients. Therefore, the whole genome of this isolate was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. In addition, microneutralization testing with type-specific antisera was performed. A complete genomic sequence of 35.2 kb in length with a GC content of 57% was obtained and found to be distantly related to HAdV-D27 (96.25% identity). Imputed serology implicated a new type with a nucleotide sequence identity of only 96.11 % to HAdV-D37 (loop 1) and 95.76% to HAdV-D30 and HAdV-D37 (loop 2). Microneutralization testing confirmed that this clinical isolate was not neutralized by HAdV-D37- or HAdV-D30-specific antisera. The penton base gene showed a novel sequence, which clustered with HAdV-D38, but bootscan analysis indicated an intra-penton recombination event with HAdV-D60. Another recombination event was detected within the early gene region E3 with the 12.2 kDa and CR1-αa genes derived from HAdV-D58. Moreover, the E4 region was derived from HAdV-D13, but all these genes had evolved significantly from their ancestors. By contrast, the recombinant fibre gene was almost 100% identical to HAdV-D29. In conclusion, the genomics of this novel HAdV, designated the HAdV-D70 [P70H70F29] prototype, supported the significance of multiple recombinations in the phylogeny of HAdV-D. © 2015 The Authors.
Pfister H.,Institute For Virologie
Haut | Year: 2014
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is associated with papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV). Infections with betaPV, which is ubiquitary prevalent, are already acquired within the first weeks after birth. Persisting infections are well controlled by the immune system, and their course is asymptomatic. Therefore, there is no need for a general vaccination before exposition. In iatrogenic immune suppression, however, the risk of skin cancer is severely increased. In a model of betaPV-transgenic mice, betaPV-induced development of tumors could be prevented by a vaccination against viral oncoproteins. A preventive vaccination of this kind could be interesting especially for recipients of transplants.
Pfister H.,Institute For Virologie
Hautarzt | Year: 2011
The genus betapapillomavirus (betaPV) presently comprises more than 40 virus types including the so-called epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated HPV, which were originally detected in EV-patients by Southern blot hybridization. BetaPV are ubiquitous in the general population and frequently establish themselves already during the first weeks of life. Hair follicles are regarded as natural reservoir. About 25% of betaPV detected in adults persist for at least 9 months. Due to very low virus production, seroconversion against betaPV starts sluggishly. Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis patients or after severe burns stimulates virus replication. Massive virus replication only occurs in EV-patients, associated with the induction of disseminated skin lesions with a high risk of malignant conversion. In 75% of EV-patients this can be put down to homozygous, inactivating mutations in the genes EVER1 or EVER2. A transgenic mouse model substantiated the crucial role of increased HPV8 oncogene expression, induced by UV-irradiation or wounding, for tumor induction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Heim A.,Institute For Virologie
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy | Year: 2016
Background: The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. Methods: ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Results: Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p < 0.001) which included non-heart-beating ('cadaveric') donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. Conclusion: The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. All rights reserved.
Wendel I.,Institute For Virologie |
Matrosovich M.,Institute For Virologie |
Klenk H.D.,Institute For Virologie
Cell host & microbe | Year: 2015
The major natural hosts of influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted to mammalian and other avian species, including humans. Due to the high mutation rate and reassortment of the viral genome, the viruses may undergo adaptation to humans and then give rise to a pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.