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Jin M.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi

To acknowledge the epidemiology of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses and their genotypes. Epidemiologic data and specimens were collected from 19 gastroenteritis outbreaks. 201 specimens were detected for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR methods and PCR products were sequenced. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed by Clustal X 1.83 and MEGA 4.0 programs. Noroviruses were one of the most predominant pathogens causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks (12 of 19 outbreaks, accounting for 63.2%). Variant GII-4/2006b was the predominant strain responsible for 11 of the 12 NV-associated outbreaks. Other genotypes would include GII-17, GII-6 and GII-3. The NV-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred mainly in winter and spring between December 2006 and April 2007. These gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses would involve all age groups in various locations. Meantime, 2 out of 12 outbreaks were caused by norovirus or other viruses. In addition, multiple viruses and multiple genotypes of noroviruses were found in the same outbreak. Noroviruses were one of the most major pathogens causing gastroenteritis outbreaks while GII-4/2006b variant was identified as the predominant strain in China. Source

Fu J.-G.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Ai J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhang J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wu Q.-B.,Soochow University of China | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in both sporadic and outbreak cases. Genotyping and recombination analyses were performed in order to help getting more knowledge of the distribution and genetic diversity of NoVs in Suzhou, located in Jiangsu province of China. All stool samples were collected from hospitalized children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were partially amplified and sequenced. 26.9% of stool samples were positive for genogroup II NoVs. The most common genotype was GII.4 and its variants included Den Haag-2006b, New Orleans-2009, and Sydney-2012. The Den Haag-2006b variants predominated during 2010-2012. In 2013, it was replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant. The second most common genotype was GII.12/GII.3. NoVs could be detected throughout the year, with GII.4 and GII.12/GII.3 coexisting during the cold months, and GII.4 was the main genotype during the warm months. The highest prevalence of NoV was detected in young children aged <24 months. Patients infected with GII.4 had a higher chance of getting moderate fever than other NoV-positive patients, while those infected with GII.12/GII.3 tended to have a mild degree of fever. NoV is an important pathogen responsible for viral gastroenteritis among children in Suzhou. Analyses of NoV circulating between 2010 and 2013 revealed a change of predominant variant of NoV GII.4 in each epidemic season and intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Fu J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Ai J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Jin M.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention | Jiang C.,Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital | And 8 more authors.

From September 2014 to March 2015, 23 outbreaks of norovirus (NoV) acute gastroenteritis occurred in Jiangsu, China. Partial sequencing of the NoV capsid gene suggested that 16 of the 23 outbreaks were related to a new GII.17 variant. This variant was first detected in sporadic specimens in October 2014, and became predominant in February 2015. Analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and complete capsid including the protruding domain P2 sequences confirmed this GII.17 variant as distinct from previously identified GII variants. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source

Yu J.-M.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention | Ao Y.-Y.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention | Liu N.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention | Li L.-L.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention | Duan Z.-J.,Institute for Viral Diseases Control and Prevention

Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1) was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5%) and 13 (2.8%) of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571) or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400) were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774). The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB) shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis. © 2015 Yu et al. Source

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