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Kamenisch Y.,University of Tübingen | Fousteri M.,Leiden University | Knoch J.,University of Tübingen | Von Thaler A.-K.,University of Tübingen | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2010

Defects in the DNA repair mechanism nucleotide excision repair (NER) may lead to tumors in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or to premature aging with loss of subcutaneous fat in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Mutations of mitochondrial (mt)DNA play a role in aging, but a link between the NER-associated CS proteins and base excision repair (BER)-associated proteins in mitochondrial aging remains enigmatic. We show functional increase of CSA and CSB inside mt and complex formation with mtDNA, mt human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (mtOGG)-1, and mt single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSBP)-1 upon oxidative stress. MtDNA mutations are highly increased in cells from CS patients and in subcutaneous fat of aged Csbm/m and Csa-/- mice. Thus, the NER-proteins CSA and CSB localize to mt and directly interact with BER-associated human mitochondrial 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-1 to protect from aging- and stress-induced mtDNA mutations and apoptosis-mediated loss of subcutaneous fat, a hallmark of aging found in animal models, human progeroid syndromes like CS and in normal human aging. © 2010 Kamenisch et al.


Franck U.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Herbarth O.,University of Leipzig | Roder S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Schlink U.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Background: Extensive epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between elevated outdoor particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. However, while people typically spend majority of time indoors, there is limited knowledge on airborne indoor particles and on the correlation between the concentrations of indoor particles and health effects. Even insights into the influence of differently sized indoor particles on human health are still rare. Objective: The association between differentially sized indoor air particles and the development of respiratory diseases was studied for three year aged children. Methods: Short-term measurements of particle mass and number concentrations were carried out in children's rooms. Information on possible particle sources (smoking habits, type of heating, and traffic) and respiratory outcomes were obtained from questionnaires. Measured indoor particle concentrations were correlated with possible sources of indoor particles and with respiratory health impacts. Results: Daily smoking, smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day at home and traffic density in front of the window of children's room were found to be related to indoor exposure by particles of different diameters. High indoor particle exposures were associated with an increased risk for the development of obstructive bronchitis and in some extent of non-obstructive bronchitis. The strongest impact was observed for the mass concentration of particles < 1 0.5 μm. The risk increases still remain significant if tested for stability changing the number of adjustment variables or omitting randomly selected cases, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show significant associations between indoor particle concentrations and the risks for respiratory diseases in young children. The applied short-term measurements can help to assess the health risks of indoor particles with different sizes within epidemiological studies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rock K.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Tigges J.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf | Sass S.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Sass S.,TU Munich | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Even though aging and cellular senescence appear to be linked, the biological mechanisms interconnecting these two processes remain to be unravelled. Therefore, microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles were analyzed ex vivo by means of gene array in fibroblasts isolated from young and old human donors. Expression of several miRNAs was positively correlated with donor age. Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HA is a polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix that critically regulates the phenotype of fibroblasts. Indeed, both aged and senescent fibroblasts showed increased miR-23a-3p expression and secreted significantly lower amounts of HA compared with young and non-senescent fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of miR-23a-3p in non-senescent fibroblasts led to decreased HAS2-mediated HA synthesis, upregulation of senescenceassociated markers, and decreased proliferation. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of HAS2 and pharmacological inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone mimicked the effects of miR-23a-3p. In vivo, miR-23a-3p was upregulated and HAS2 was downregulated in the skin of old mice compared with young mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone in mice reduced dermal hydration and viscoelasticity, thereby mimicking an aged skin phenotype. Taken together, these findings appear to link miR-23a-3p and the HA microenvironment as effector mechanisms in both dermal aging and senescence. © 2015 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Donaldson K.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Poland C.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Schins R.P.F.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2010

We review the mechanisms and pathways whereby nanoparticles might cause genotoxicity. Primary and secondary mechanisms are discussed in relation to the general particle toxicology paradigm. We also discuss how we might improve genotoxicity assays for nanoparticles. In this context we describe the role of the dispersion and the protein corona, the most relevant metric, choice of controls and new endpoints for genotoxicity along with the need for a structure activity model of NP genotoxicity. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Peuschel H.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf | Sydlik U.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf | Haendeler J.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf | Buchner N.,Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf | And 5 more authors.
Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Owing to their specific physico/chemical properties, engineered as well as environmental nanoparticles can induce pathogenic endpoints in humans. Earlier studies demonstrated that pure carbon nanoparticles induce cell signaling events at the level of membrane receptor activation in lung epithelial cells. As a possible link between receptor activation and subsequent MAP-kinase signaling, the involvement of Src family kinases was investigated in cell lines of organs potentially exposed to environmental nanoparticles. Human cells from bronchus, intestine, and skin (keratinocytes) as well as rat lung epithelial cells showed similar time patterns for the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1/2 as well as Src family kinases (SFK) when treated with carbon nanoparticles. Moreover, c-Src was identified as an integral part of the signaling mediating the transfer of information from membrane receptors to members of the proliferative signaling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Pretreatment of cells with the compatible solute ectoine, which is known to stabilize macromolecules, reduced the nanoparticle specific phosphorylation of SFK. Together with earlier in vivo and in vitro data, this demonstrates that compatible solutes prevent nanoparticle-induced signaling steps at the level of membrane-coupled signaling. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.


PubMed | Helmholtz Center Munich, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf and Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of investigative dermatology | Year: 2015

Even though aging and cellular senescence appear to be linked, the biological mechanisms interconnecting these two processes remain to be unravelled. Therefore, microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles were analyzed ex vivo by means of gene array in fibroblasts isolated from young and old human donors. Expression of several miRNAs was positively correlated with donor age. Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HA is a polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix that critically regulates the phenotype of fibroblasts. Indeed, both aged and senescent fibroblasts showed increased miR-23a-3p expression and secreted significantly lower amounts of HA compared with young and non-senescent fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of miR-23a-3p in non-senescent fibroblasts led to decreased HAS2-mediated HA synthesis, upregulation of senescence-associated markers, and decreased proliferation. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of HAS2 and pharmacological inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone mimicked the effects of miR-23a-3p. In vivo, miR-23a-3p was upregulated and HAS2 was downregulated in the skin of old mice compared with young mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone in mice reduced dermal hydration and viscoelasticity, thereby mimicking an aged skin phenotype. Taken together, these findings appear to link miR-23a-3p and the HA microenvironment as effector mechanisms in both dermal aging and senescence.


PubMed | Institute For Umweltmedizinische Forschung Iuf
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological chemistry | Year: 2010

Owing to their specific physico/chemical properties, engineered as well as environmental nanoparticles can induce pathogenic endpoints in humans. Earlier studies demonstrated that pure carbon nanoparticles induce cell signaling events at the level of membrane receptor activation in lung epithelial cells. As a possible link between receptor activation and subsequent MAP-kinase signaling, the involvement of Src family kinases was investigated in cell lines of organs potentially exposed to environmental nanoparticles. Human cells from bronchus, intestine, and skin (keratinocytes) as well as rat lung epithelial cells showed similar time patterns for the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1/2 as well as Src family kinases (SFK) when treated with carbon nanoparticles. Moreover, c-Src was identified as an integral part of the signaling mediating the transfer of information from membrane receptors to members of the proliferative signaling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Pretreatment of cells with the compatible solute ectoine, which is known to stabilize macromolecules, reduced the nanoparticle specific phosphorylation of SFK. Together with earlier in vivo and in vitro data, this demonstrates that compatible solutes prevent nanoparticle-induced signaling steps at the level of membrane-coupled signaling.

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