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Krause D.S.,Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy | Scadden D.T.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute
Haematologica | Year: 2015

Our understanding of the biology of the normal hematopoietic stem cell niche has increased steadily due to improved murine models and sophisticated imaging tools. Less well understood, but of growing interest, is the interaction between cells in the bone marrow during the initiation, maintenance and treatment of hematologic neoplasms. This review summarizes the emerging concepts of the normal and leukemic hematopoietic bone marrow niche. Furthermore, it reviews current models of how the microenvironment of the bone marrow may contribute to or be modified by leukemogenesis. Finally, it provides the rationale for a “two-pronged” approach, directly targeting cancer cells themselves while also targeting the bone microenvironment to make it inhospitable to malignant cells and, ultimately, eradicating cancer stem-like cells. © 2015 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

Veljkovic V.,Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Glisic S.,Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Veljkovic N.,Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Bojic T.,Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Despite plausible evidence for beneficial effects of the vaccination against influenza in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) very limited studies have been carried out to explain the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon. Using the informational spectrum method (ISM), a virtual spectroscopy method for analysis of protein-protein interactions, the bradykinin 2 receptor (BKB2R) was identified as a principal host protein which could mediate molecular processes underlying the cardioprotective effect of influenza vaccines.Based on this finding we suggest that some antibodies elicited by influenza vaccines act as agonists, which activate a BKB2R-associated signaling pathway contributing to the protection against CVD. The ISM analysis of 14 influenza viruses, which were used as components of seasonal vaccines, revealed four vaccine viruses A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1), A/NewCaledonia/20/1999(H1N1), A/Christchurch/28/2003(H3N2) and A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2), which could be suited best for further studies on the cardioprotective effect of influenza vaccines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gupta J.,Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine | Gupta J.,Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy | Nebreda A.R.,Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine | Nebreda A.R.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
FEBS Journal | Year: 2015

The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway not only regulates the production of inflammatory mediators, but also controls processes related to tissue homeostasis, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, which are often disrupted during malignant transformation. The versatility of this signaling pathway allows for the regulation of many specific functions depending on the cell type and context. Here, we discuss mouse models that have been used to identify in vivo functions of p38α signaling in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Experiments using genetically modified mice and pharmacological inhibitors support that targeting the p38α pathway could be therapeutically useful for some inflammatory diseases and tumor types. © 2015 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

Bulycheva E.,TU Dresden | Rauner M.,TU Dresden | Medyouf H.,Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy | Theurl I.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2015

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) represent clonal disorders mainly of the elderly that are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and an increased risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. The pathogenesis of MDS is thought to evolve from accumulation and selection of specific genetic or epigenetic events. Emerging evidence indicates that MDS is not solely a hematopoietic disease but rather affects the entire bone marrow microenvironment, including bone metabolism. Many of these cells, in particular mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPCs) and osteoblasts, express a number of adhesion molecules and secreted factors that regulate blood regeneration throughout life by contributing to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation. Several endocrine factors, such as erythropoietin, parathyroid hormone and estrogens, as well as deranged iron metabolism modulate these processes. Thus, interactions between MSPC and HSPC contribute to the pathogenesis of MDS and associated pathologies. A detailed understanding of these mechanisms may help to define novel targets for diagnosis and possibly therapy. In this review, we will discuss the scientific rationale of 'osteohematology' as an emerging research field in MDS and outline clinical implications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

Canli O.,Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy | Alankus Y.B.,TU Munich | Grootjans S.,Ghent University | Vegi N.,University of Ulm | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2016

Maintaining cellular redox balance is vital for cell survival and tissue homoeostasis because imbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to oxidative stress and cell death. The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a key regulator of oxidative stress-induced cell death. We show that mice with deletion of Gpx4 in hematopoietic cells develop anemia and that Gpx4 is essential for preventing receptorinteracting protein 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis in erythroid precursor cells. Absence of Gpx4 leads to functional inactivation of caspase 8 by glutathionylation, resulting in necroptosis, which occurs independently of tumor necrosis factor a activation. Although genetic ablation of Rip3 normalizes reticulocyte maturation and prevents anemia, ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation in Gpx4-deficient cells remain high. Our results demonstrate that ROS and lipid hydroperoxides function as not-yet-recognized unconventional upstream signaling activators of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

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