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Yuan K.,Southern Medical University | Wu X.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | Zhang Q.,Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital | Zhong Z.,Southern Medical University | Chen J.,Southern Medical University
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of a laboratory-developed recombinant CFP-10/ESAT-6 fusion protein (rCFP-10/ESAT-6)-based enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis (TB) in China, and to evaluate the value of the ELISPOT assay for monitoring the efficacy of surgical treatment. Methods: In the first part of the study, a total of 78 participants were consecutively recruited for ELISPOT using rCFP-10/ESAT-6 as a stimulus. The cutoff value for ELISPOT positivity was based on the results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In the second part, this approach was evaluated in a prospective study including 102 patients with suspected spinal TB. Data on clinical characteristics of the patients and conventional laboratory results were collected, and blood samples were obtained for ELISPOT using rCFP-10/ESAT-6 as a stimulus. Results: Among the 102 patients with suspected spinal TB, 11 were excluded from the study. Twenty-three patients (25.2%) had culture-confirmed TB and 29 (31.9%) patients had probable TB. Among the spinal TB patients, the ELISPOT had a sensitivity of 82.7%, compared to a sensitivity of 61.5% for the purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test. The specificity was 87.2% for ELISPOT and 46.2% for the PPD skin test among 39 subjects with non-TB disease. The number of spot-forming cells and/or the positive rate of the ELISPOT assay were associated with aging, emaciation, and paravertebral abscess. The number of subjects with responses to rCFP-10/ESAT-6 slightly decreased after surgical treatment in spinal TB patients. Conclusions: A laboratory-developed rCFP-10/ESAT-6 ELISPOT assay is a useful adjunct to current tests for the diagnosis of spinal TB. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Liu F.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Hu Y.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Wang Q.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Li H.M.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Due to excessive antibiotic use, drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a serious public health threat and a major obstacle to disease control in many countries. To better understand the evolution of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, we performed whole genome sequencing for 7 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles and conducted comparative genomic analysis of gene variations among them.Results: We observed that all 7 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates with different levels of drug resistance harbored similar numbers of SNPs, ranging from 1409-1464. The numbers of insertion/deletions (Indels) identified in the 7 isolates were also similar, ranging from 56 to 101. A total of 39 types of mutations were identified in drug resistance-associated loci, including 14 previously reported ones and 25 newly identified ones. Sixteen of the identified large Indels spanned PE-PPE-PGRS genes, which represents a major source of antigenic variability. Aside from SNPs and Indels, a CRISPR locus with varied spacers was observed in all 7 clinical isolates, suggesting that they might play an important role in plasticity of the M. tuberculosis genome. The nucleotide diversity (L{cyrillic} value) and selection intensity (dN/dS value) of the whole genome sequences of the 7 isolates were similar. The dN/dS values were less than 1 for all 7 isolates (range from 0.608885 to 0.637365), supporting the notion that M. tuberculosis genomes undergo purifying selection. The L{cyrillic} values and dN/dS values were comparable between drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains.Conclusions: In this study, we show that clinical M. tuberculosis isolates exhibit distinct variations in terms of the distribution of SNP, Indels, CRISPR-cas locus, as well as the nucleotide diversity and selection intensity, but there are no generalizable differences between drug-susceptible and drug-resistant isolates on the genomic scale. Our study provides evidence strengthening the notion that the evolution of drug resistance among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates is clearly a complex and diversified process. © 2014 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hu S.,Xiamen University | Li G.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | Li H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu X.,Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

The MeltPro TB/INH assay, recently approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration, is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test specially designed to detect 30 isoniazid (INH) resistance mutations in katG position 315 (katG 315), the inhA promoter (positions-17 to -8), inhA position 94, and the ahpC promoter (positions-44 to -30 and -15 to 3) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we evaluated both the analytical performance and clinical performance of this assay. Analytical studies with corresponding panels demonstrated that the accuracy for detection of different mutation types (10 wild-type samples and 12 mutant type samples), the limit of detection (2 × 103 to 2 × 104 bacilli/ml), reproducibility (standard deviation [SD], <0.4°C), and the lowest heteroresistance level (40%) all met the parameters preset by the kit. The assay could be run on five types of real-time PCR machines, with the shortest running time (105 min) obtained with the LightCycler 480 II. Clinical studies enrolled 1,096 clinical isolates collected from three geographically different tuberculosis centers, including 437 INH-resistant isolates and 659 INH-susceptible isolates characterized by traditional drug susceptibility testing on Löwenstein- Jensen solid medium. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/INH assay were 90.8% and 96.4%, respectively. DNA sequencing analysis showed that, except for the 5 mutants outside the detection range of the MeltPro assay, a concordance rate between the two methods of 99.1% (457/461) was obtained. Among the 26 mutation types detected, katG S315T (AGC→ACC), inhA - 15C→T, katG S315N (AGC→AAC), and ahpC promoter - 10C→T accounted for more than 90%. Overall, the MeltPro TB/INH assay represents a reliable and rapid tool for the detection of INH resistance in clinical isolates. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Liu C.H.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Li H.M.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | Lu N.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Wang Q.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2012

Objective: To better understand the molecular mechanisms and evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), we performed a genomic sequence based scanning of drug resistance-associated loci for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains. Materials and methods: Forty-five pairs of primers covering known drug resistance-associated loci compiled in the TBDReaMDB database were designed to perform the analysis of drug resistance-associated mutations for 14 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from TB patients in China. Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis was done using concatenated nucleotide sequences of drug resistance-associated loci. Results: Forty-four types of mutations were identified in 14 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. Average nucleotide diversity for drug resistance-associated loci increased in the M. tuberculosis isolates as the drug resistance increased (π = 0, π = 0.00021, and π = 0.00028 for susceptible, MDR, and XDR isolates, respectively). The d. N/d. S ratios for coding regions of drug resistance-associated genes in MDR and XDR isolates were 2.73 and 1.83, respectively. MDR and XDR isolates were distributed sporadically on different branches in the phylogenetic trees. Conclusions: Our study provides supporting evidence to demonstrate that the MDR- and XDR- M. tuberculosis strains have evolved independently driven by positive selection. © 2012 The British Infection Association.

Liu C.H.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Liu C.H.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | Li L.,Southern Medical University | Chen Z.,Institute for Tuberculosis Research | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Information on treatment outcomes among hospitalized patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are scarce in China. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted this retrospective study to analyze the characteristics and treatment outcomes in MDR- and XDR-TB patients in the 309 Hospital in Beijing, China during 1996-2009. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrieved from medical records and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes and Cox proportional hazards regression model was further used to determine risk factors associated with death in TB patients. Among the 3,551 non-repetitive hospitalized TB patients who had drug susceptibility testing (DST) results, 716 (20.2%) had MDR-TB and 51 (1.4%) had XDR-TB. A total of 3,270 patients who had medical records available were used for further analyses. Treatment success rates (cured and treatment completed) were 90.9%, 53.4% and 29.2% for patients with non-MDR-TB, patients with MDR-TB excluding XDR-TB and patients with XDR-TB, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients included being a migrant (adjusted OR = 1.77), smear-positivity at treatment onset (adjusted OR = 1.94) and not receiving 3 or more potentially effective drugs (adjusted OR = 3.87). Independent risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in XDR-TB patients were smear-positivity at treatment onset (adjusted OR = 10.42) and not receiving 3 or more potentially effective drugs (adjusted OR = 14.90). The independent risk factors associated with death in TB patients were having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted HR = 5.25) and having hypertension (adjusted HR = 4.31). Conclusions/Significance: While overall satisfactory treatment success for non-MDR-TB patients was achieved, more intensive efforts should be made to better manage MDR- and XDR-TB cases in order to improve their treatment outcomes and to minimize further emergence of so-called totally drug-resistant TB cases. © 2011 Liu et al.

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