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Silva A.L.,Leiden University | Soema P.C.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Slutter B.,Leiden University | Ossendorp F.,Leiden University | Jiskoot W.,Leiden University
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2016

Among the emerging subunit vaccines are recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based vaccine formulations. However, proteins and peptides have a low intrinsic immunogenicity. A common strategy to overcome this is to co-deliver (an) antigen(s) with (an) immune modulator(s) by co-encapsulating them in a particulate delivery system, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles. Particulate PLGA formulations offer many advantages for antigen delivery as they are biocompatible and biodegradable; can protect the antigens from degradation and clearance; allow for co-encapsulation of antigens and immune modulators; can be targeted to antigen presenting cells; and their particulate nature can increase uptake and cross-presentation by mimicking the size and shape of an invading pathogen. In this review we discuss the pros and cons of using PLGA particulate formulations for subunit vaccine delivery and provide an overview of formulation parameters that influence their adjuvanticity and the ensuing immune response. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source


Schipper P.,Leiden University | van der Maaden K.,Leiden University | Romeijn S.,Leiden University | Oomens C.,TU Eindhoven | And 4 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the depth-dependent intradermal immunogenicity of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) delivered by depth-controlled microinjections via hollow microneedles (HMN) and to investigate antibody response enhancing effects of IPV immunization adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT). Methods: A novel applicator for HMN was designed to permit depth- and volume-controlled microinjections. The applicator was used to immunize rats intradermally with monovalent IPV serotype 1 (IPV1) at injection depths ranging from 50 to 550 μm, or at 400 μm for CpG and CT adjuvanted immunization, which were compared to intramuscular immunization. Results: The applicator allowed accurate microinjections into rat skin at predetermined injection depths (50–900 μm), -volumes (1–100 μL) and -rates (up to 60 μL/min) with minimal volume loss (±1–2%). HMN-mediated intradermal immunization resulted in similar IgG and virus-neutralizing antibody titers as conventional intramuscular immunization. No differences in IgG titers were observed as function of injection depth, however IgG titers were significantly increased in the CpG and CT adjuvanted groups (7-fold). Conclusion: Intradermal immunogenicity of IPV1 was not affected by injection depth. CpG and CT were potent adjuvants for both intradermal and intramuscular immunization, allowing effective vaccination upon a minimally-invasive single intradermal microinjection by HMN. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Soema P.C.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Soema P.C.,Leiden University | Kompier R.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Abstract Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current influenza vaccines have several limitations. Relatively long production times, limited vaccine capacity, moderate efficacy in certain populations and lack of cross-reactivity are important issues that need to be addressed. We give an overview of the current status and novel developments in the landscape of influenza vaccines from an interdisciplinary point of view. The feasibility of novel vaccine concepts not only depends on immunological or clinical outcomes, but also depends on biotechnological aspects, such as formulation and production methods, which are frequently overlooked. Furthermore, the next generation of influenza vaccines is addressed, which hopefully will bring cross-reactive influenza vaccines. These developments indicate that an exciting future lies ahead in the influenza vaccine field. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Soema P.C.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Willems G.-J.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Jiskoot W.,Leiden University | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Abstract In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Kraan H.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | van der Stel W.,Leiden University | Kersten G.,Leiden University | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2016

Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source

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