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Montgomery B.,Seattle University | Eisenberger M.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Rettig M.B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Chu F.,San Bernadino Urological Associates | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research

Purpose: Galeterone is a selective, multitargeted agent that inhibits CYP17, antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), and reduces AR expression in prostate cancer cells by causing an increase in AR protein degradation. These open-label phase I and II studies [Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response-1 (ARMOR1) and ARMOR2 part 1] evaluated the efficacy and safety of galeterone in patients with treatment- naive nonmetastatic or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and established a dose for further study. Experimental Design: In ARMOR1, 49 patients received increasing doses (650-2,600 mg) of galeterone in capsule formulation; 28 patients in ARMOR2 part 1 received increasing doses (1,700-3,400 mg) of galeterone in tablet formulation for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated biweekly for safety and efficacy, and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Results: InARMOR1, across all doses, 49.0% (24/49) achieved a ≥30% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA; PSA30) and 22.4% (11/49) demonstrated a ≥50% PSA decline (PSA50). In ARMOR2 part 1, across all doses, PSA30 was 64.0% (16/25) and PSA50 was 48.0% (12/25). In the 2,550-mg dose cohort, PSA30 was 72.7% (8/11) and PSA50 was 54.5% (6/11). Galeterone was well tolerated; the most common adverse events were fatigue, increased liver enzymes, gastrointestinal events, and pruritus. Most were mild ormoderate in severity and required no action and there were no apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) events. Conclusions: The efficacy and safety from ARMOR1 and ARMOR2 part 1 and the pharmacokinetic results support the galeterone tablet dose of 2,550 mg/d for further study. Galeterone was well tolerated and demonstrated pharmacodynamic changes consistent with its selective, multifunctional AR signaling inhibition. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Chiappori A.A.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Schreeder M.T.,Clearview Cancer Institute | Moezi M.M.,Integrated Community Oncology Network | Stephenson J.J.,Institute for Translational Oncology Research | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background: Bcl-2 family genes are frequently amplified in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of obatoclax, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, given in combination with standard chemotherapy. Methods: Eligible patients (3-6 per cohort) had extensive-stage SCLC, measurable disease, 1 before therapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and adequate organ function. Patients were treated with escalating doses of obatoclax, either as a 3-or 24-h infusion, on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin (area under the curve 5, day 1 only) and etoposide (100 mg m 2, days 1-3). The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of obatoclax.Results:Twenty-five patients (56% male; median age 66 years) were enrolled in three dose cohorts for each schedule. Maximum tolerated dose was established with the 3-h infusion at 30 mg per day and was not reached with the 24-h infusion. Compared with the 24-h cohorts, the 3-h cohorts had higher incidence of central nervous system (CNS) adverse events (AEs); dose-limiting toxicities were somnolence, euphoria, and disorientation. These CNS AEs were transient, resolving shortly after the end of infusion, and without sequelae. The response rate was 81% in the 3-h and 44% in the 24-h infusion cohorts. Conclusion: Although associated with a higher incidence of transient CNS AEs than the 24-h infusion, 3-h obatoclax infusion combined with carboplatin-etoposide was generally well tolerated at doses of 30 mg per day. Though patient numbers were small, there was a suggestion of improved efficacy in the 3-h infusion group. Obatoclax 30 mg infused intravenously over 3 h on 3 consecutive days will be utilised in future SCLC studies. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

Stephenson J.J.,Institute for Translational Oncology Research | Nemunaitis J.,Mary Crowley Cancer Research Centers | Joy A.A.,University of Alberta | Martin J.C.,Institute for Translational Oncology Research | And 11 more authors.
Lung Cancer

Objectives: Dinaciclib (MK-7965, formerly SCH 727965), a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, has been shown to induce apoptosis in preclinical studies of human tumor cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of advanced NSCLC as second- or third-line therapy. This phase 2, randomized, multicenter, open-label study compared dinaciclib with erlotinib in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Materials and methods: The study was comprised of 2 parts: in part 1, patients were randomized to either intravenous (IV) dinaciclib (50mg/m2) or oral erlotinib (150mg) using an adaptive Bayesian design that adjusted the randomization ratio in favor of the more active arm, and in part 2, patients who had progressed on erlotinib were permitted to cross over to receive dinaciclib at the same dosage as in part 1. Patients were followed until disease progression or death, initiation of nonstudy cancer treatment, discontinuation, or withdrawal of consent. The primary efficacy end point was time-to-progression (TTP) in part 1 and objective response rate (ORR) in part 2. Results: Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the median TTP was 1.49 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31, 2.63) following initial treatment with dinaciclib, compared with 1.58 months (95% CI: 1.38, 2.83) with erlotinib. No objective responses were observed following initial treatment with dinaciclib. Common severe (grade 3 or 4) drug-related adverse effects included neutropenia, leukopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Conclusions: Dinaciclib, administered IV, was well tolerated at the 50mg/m2 dose, but does not have activity as monotherapy in previously treated NSCLC. Evaluation of dinaciclib in combination with other agents for other indications including breast cancer and multiple myeloma is in progress. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ramanathan R.K.,Virginia per Cancer Center | Stephenson J.J.,Institute for Translational Oncology Research | Weiss G.J.,Virginia per Cancer Center | Pestano L.A.,Oncothyreon | And 6 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs

Purpose This phase I trial assessed the safety, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and pharmacodynamics of PX-12 in adult patients with advanced refractory cancers. Methods PX- 12 was administered to sequential cohorts as a 72-h infusion utilizing a portable infusion pump on days 1, 2, and 3 of a 21- day cycle at a starting dose level of 300 mg/m 2/day and escalating dose levels till DLT was observed. Plasma thioredoxin (Trx-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor) levels were measured predose and during infusion of PX-12. Results Patients (n=14) were enrolled to the following dose cohorts, 300 mg/m 2 (n=3), 400 mg/m 2 (n=10) and 500 mg/m 2 (n=1). Common grade 1/2 toxicities included fatigue, taste alteration and odor caused by expired drug metabolite. DLTs were one episode each of grade 3 hypoxia at the 400 mg/m 2 and grade 3 reversible pneumonitis at the 500 mg/m 2 dose levels. Best response was stable disease in a patient with rectal cancer. Predose Trx-1 levels (n=12) ranged from 5.1 to 30.0 ng/mL (median 12.6 ng/mL). Conclusion PX-12 administered at 400 mg/m 2/day by 72-hour infusion appears safe and tolerable. Inhibition of thioredoxin is a strategy worth evaluation with next generation of inhibitors. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Borad M.J.,Mayo Medical School | Reddy S.G.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Bahary N.,University of Pittsburgh | Uronis H.E.,Duke University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology

Purpose: TH-302 is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that releases the DNA alkylator bromoisophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic settings. This phase II study (NCT01144455) evaluated gemcitabine plus TH-302 in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2), gemcitabine plus TH-302 240 mg/m2 (G+T240), or gemcitabine plus TH-302 340 mg/m2 (G+T340). Randomized crossover after progression on gemcitabine was allowed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), tumor response, CA 19-9 response, and safety. Results: Two hundred fourteen patients (77% with metastatic disease) were enrolled between June 2010 and July 2011. PFS was significantly longer with gemcitabine plus TH-302 (pooled combination arms) compared with gemcitabine alone (median PFS, 5.6 v 3.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.87; P = .005; median PFS for metastatic disease, 5.1 v 3.4 months, respectively). Median PFS times for G+T240 and G+T340 were 5.6 and 6.0 months, respectively. Tumor response was 12%, 17%, and 26% in the gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 arms, respectively (G+T340 v gemcitabine, P = .04). CA 19-9 decrease was greater with G+T340 versus gemcitabine (-5,398 v -549 U/mL, respectively; P = .008). Median OS times for gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 were 6.9, 8.7, and 9.2 months, respectively (P = not significant). The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, nausea, and peripheral edema (frequencies similar across arms). Skin and mucosal toxicities (2% grade 3) and myelosuppression (55% grade 3 or 4) were the most common TH-302-related AEs but were not associated with treatment discontinuation. Conclusion: PFS, tumor response, and CA 19-9 response were significantly improved with G+TH-302. G+T340 is being investigated further in the phase III MAESTRO study (NCT01746979). © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

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