PubMed | Institute for Integrative Toxicology, University of Oslo, Michigan State University, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2016
We have previously shown that in response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-elicited NAFLD progression, central carbon, glutaminolysis, and serine/folate metabolism are reprogrammed to support NADPH production and ROS defenses. To further investigate underlying dose-dependent responses associated with TCDD-induced fibrosis, female C57BL/6 mice were gavaged with TCDD every 4 days (d) for 28 d or 92 d. RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq (2h), and 28 d metabolomic (urine, serum, and hepatic extract) analyses were conducted with complementary serum marker assessments at 92 d. Additional vehicle and 30 g/kg treatment groups were allowed to recover for 36 d following the 92-d treatment regimen to examine recovery from TCDD-elicited fibrosis. Histopathology revealed dose-dependent increases in hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and periportal collagen deposition at 92 days, with increased fibrotic severity in the recovery group. Serum proinflammatory and profibrotic interleukins-1, -2, -4, -6, and -10, as well as TNF- and IFN-, exhibited dose-dependent induction. An increase in glucose tolerance was observed with a concomitant 3.0-fold decrease in hepatic glycogen linked to increased ascorbic acid biosynthesis and proline metabolism, consistent with increased fibrosis. RNA-Seq identified differential expression of numerous matrisome genes including an 8.8-fold increase in Tgfb2 indicating myofibroblast activation. Further analysis suggests reprogramming of glycogen, ascorbic acid, and amino acid metabolism in support of collagen deposition and the use of proline as a substrate for ATP production via the proline cycle. In summary, we demonstrate that glycogen, ascorbic acid, and amino acid metabolism are also reorganized to support remodeling of the extracellular matrix, progressing to hepatic fibrosis in response to chronic injury from TCDD.