Klaric E.,University of Zagreb |
Rakic M.,Institute of Physics |
Sever I.,Institute for Tourism |
Tarle Z.,University of Zagreb
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface and intrapulpal temperatures after treatments with different bleaching gels subjected to different types of light activation. A K-type thermocouple and infrared thermometer were used to measure the temperature increase during the 15- or 30-min treatment period. Light-emitting diode with a center wavelength of 405 nm (LED405), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and femtosecond laser were tested and compared to ZOOM2. The tooth surface was treated with five bleaching agents and Vaseline which served as a control.The generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was applied for testing the differences in temperature increase. The ZOOM2 light source led to the largest increase in mean pulpal and tooth surface temperatures of 21.1 and 22.8 °C, followed by focused femtosecond laser which increased the pulpal and surface temperatures by up to 15.7 and 16.8 °C. Treatments with unfocused femtosecond laser, LED405, and OLED induced significantly lower mean temperature increases (p < 0.001 for each comparison with ZOOM2 and focused femtosecond laser), both in the pulp chamber (up to 2.7, 2.5, and 1.4 °C) and at the tooth surface (up to 3.2, 3.4, and 1.8 °C). Significant differences between pulp chamber and tooth surface measurements were obtained for all types of bleaching gel, during treatments with ZOOM2 (p < 0.001), LED405 (p < 0.001), and unfocused (p < 0.001) and focused femtosecond laser (p ≤ 0.002). Different bleaching agents or Vaseline can serve as an isolating layer. Focused femtosecond laser and ZOOM2 produced large temperature increases in the pulp chamber and at the tooth surface. Caution is advised when using these types of light activation, while LED405, OLED, and unfocused femtosecond laser could be safely used. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.
Mackelworth P.C.,Marine Conservation Institute |
Caric H.,Institute For Tourism
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2010
Sustainable development (SD) is generally recognised as having three dimensions, ecological, economic and social. Yet, its implementation is burdened with resistance and conflict rooted in the short-term 'business as usual' development model, opposed to the long-term sustainable benefit of local communities. Hence, the development of strategies to implement SD projects may require further differentiation of these dimensions in relation to the contextual situation in which the project resides. In two studies of SD projects on the Croatian islands, we identify five interlocking spheres of importance, Spiritual, Political, Economic, Educational and Health, in addition to Ecological. Each of these spheres is accessible through gate-keepers, individuals or a group of people who have the authority over the sector and as such, significantly influence public opinion. We suggest that in this particular island context the sustainability of these projects may lie with those gate-keepers. Hence, initiating and maintaining SD projects in these contexts requires a structured and targeted lobbying of these gate-keepers. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Caric H.,Institute for Tourism |
Mackelworth P.,Marine Conservation Institute |
Mackelworth P.,University of Primorska
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2014
Cruise tourism is a growing sector of the travel and recreation industry. Due to it mobility it is often one of the first forms of tourism to relocate to new host environments and it is encouraged by transition economies looking to increase foreign revenue. Yet the environmental impacts of cruise vessels on the host environment can be significant, and due to the growth of this sector, it is likely to increase. The Mediterranean is a growing market for cruise tourism. The absence of any international coordination of the industry at the region level leaves it open to exploitation, especially considering the lack of effective pollution control mechanisms in most States. The Adriatic Sea, and Croatia in particular, is of growing interest to the cruise industry. As such Croatia can serve as an example of the strategies and practices that will be implemented as the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean States become more stable and accessible. This work examines cruise ship emissions and impacts, points to existing environmental management options, and opens up the discussion on coastal tourism development as a panacea to the current economic crisis in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Borovic S.,Croatian Geological Survey |
Markovic I.,Institute for Tourism
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015
Current situation and trends in geothermal water utilization in Croatia have been analyzed based on data gathering and observations in a period of 16 years with special attention devoted to their use for tourism purposes. Early 2014 geothermal water was utilized at 26 locations (15 springs and 11 deep boreholes) for 10 different purposes. The traditional modalities of use - recreation and balneotherapy - remain dominant. The fluctuations in the number of sites that utilized geothermal water were low and a result of temporary closure of facilities due to the necessary modernization or termination of their work because of non-profitability. The changes in geothermal water utilization during the considered period indicate stagnation in the development of this resource. Geothermal waters contain an energy potential significant for heating and cooling sector on a national scale, and for electricity generation and cascade utilization on local scale. Those could be energy self-sufficient tourism facilities with low environmental footprint, enriched by the attractions that can be provided with innovative geothermal utilization schemes. Given the untapped geothermal potential and the anticipated growth in demand for health and spa tourism, increased use of geothermal waters for this purpose can be expected. In the interest of safeguarding this valuable resource, it is important to plan sustainable utilization during each phase of geothermal site development cycle and fully implement joint management principles to transboundary geothermal aquifers by including neighbouring countries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Mikulic J.,University of Zagreb |
Kozic I.,Institute for Tourism |
Kresic D.,Institute for Tourism
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2015
Indicator weighting is an important issue in the measurement of tourism sustainability. Its importance derives from the fact that weights can have a significant effect on the rankings of analysed regions and subsequent policymaking. This is because relative indicator weights may significantly differ depending on the chosen weighting procedure. Relevant studies have however not paid particular attention to this issue so far, which is a gap this note aims to fill. An illustrative comparison of indicator weights from available studies further indicates potentially serious problems with some commonly used weighting procedures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pranic L.,University of Split |
Marusic Z.,Institute for Tourism |
Sever I.,Institute for Tourism
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
While intranational micro-cruises present a new and exciting tourism segment and a potentially powerful promotional tool for some countries and coastal destinations, the growing body of cruise research has focused almost all attention on large international cruises and onboard experiences. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research explores micro-cruise travelers' demographics/tripographics characteristics and satisfaction with the coastal destination's individual attributes in regards to revisit/repurchase and word-of-mouth intentions (RWOMI). Data were collected on 25 different ships in two Croatian ports over four months in 2009. The influence of satisfaction factors and demographics/tripographics on travelers' RWOMI was assessed by logistic regression. Further, micro-cruise and large international cruise travelers' characteristics were compared. The results revealed significant differences in travelers' demographics/tripographics and satisfaction with the different coastal destination attributes between the two cruise segments. Satisfaction with general country attributes, gastronomy and tourism destination product increased likelihood of micro-cruise travelers' RWOMI. Theoretical and managerial implications and opportunities for future research are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Tokic K.,Institute for Tourism
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2014
Information literacy is a precondition for users to independently access, understand and critically question the information in complex information environments. Since the process of learning is not limited to formal education, but is extended to a professional life and leisure time, this article aims to explore how tourism libraries in Croatia, with their contents offered online, respond not only to changes in information literacy of users, but also to changes of user education needs and changes in lifelong learning. Tourism has been selected as the area of research because of its great importance for the economy of Croatia. Tourism is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and its efficacy in the economic industry lies to a large degree on scientific research, which, itself, rests on the basis of high quality information. Libraries that organize and offer information and theoretical support emerge as indispensable infrastructures to scientists and researchers of tourism, students, and others who seek tourism information. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
Caric H.,Institute for Tourism
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011
Cruise tourism is new economic, social and environmental phenomena with potential serious impacts on the three pillars of sustainability. This paper will look into the environmental impacts in order to disclose potential hazards in port of Dubrovnik. Subsequently, existing mechanisms to deal with the hazards will be analyzed to determine their effectiveness to mitigate the impacts. This process will use direct pollution costs calculations to enable cost benefit analysis. Other impact analysis will be conducted in form of environmental (pollution) footprinting that compare environmental loads of cruise tourist vs. local inhabitant. The two (cost benefit analysis and environmental footprinting) analysis will provide information on general aspects of cruise tourism carrying capacity and its current direction of development. Finally, the discussion will point to key pollution management issues, possible solutions to some of the pollutions aspects, and stress other direct ecological threats. © 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.
Caric H.,Institute for Tourism
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
Negative externalities and natural resource valuations play an important role in the debate and analysis of sustainable development. However, as yet, they have not been included extensively in tourism research or planning. As a result limited progress has been made to improve environmental management and address resource management challenges. This paper seeks to stimulate the discussion over the advantages, disadvantages, failures and successes of selected economic and development discourses. Valuation methodologies are discussed and placed within a pollution valuation impact model to identify opportunities to assess the impact of pollution and the value of natural capital in the tourism context. Cruise tourism is used to demonstrate the model due to its rapid growth and the potential for intense pollution outputs. It is considered in the context of a developing and transition state, one which sees tourism as a panacea to the problem of accessing international currency. By employing cross disciplinary research and applying valuation logic the paper aims to contribute to the decision making process in tourism. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Kranjcevic J.,Institute for Tourism
Prostor | Year: 2013
The first architectural works by the Austrian architect, painter and graphic artists Alfred Keller (1875-1945) in Croatia were built before the First World War in the area of Kvarner, or more specifically in Opatija and on the islands of Lošinj and Susak. Almost all his projects were related to tourism. Creating architecture in the period of stylistic changes, Keller's projects reflect his wish to reconcile tradition and modernity.