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Dammgen U.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Brade W.,Institute For Tierzucht Und Vererbungsforschung | Schulz J.,Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen | Haenel H.-D.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Rosemann C.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

A survey was made in the rural districts of Lower Saxony to record feeds customary in pig production as well as the respective feeding strategies (one, two and three phase feeding without and with crude protein reduction, numbers of animal rounds). The German agricultural emission model GAS EM was used to assess the respective excretion rates of methane from enteric fermentation, of volatile solids and of total and renally excreted nitrogen. A considerable reduction of excretion rates was found as compared to the estimates hitherto calculated, of volatile solids and renal nitrogen, resulting in emission reductions of methane (for 2007: 8% or 2.2 Gg a-1) and ammonia (for 2007 22% or 4.8 Gg a-1). © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Source


Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Distl O.,Institute For Tierzucht Und Vererbungsforschung
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2015

Ruminants depend on their microbiota to digest their feed. It is therefore very tempting to prove a link between the composition and quantity of various rumen bacteria and the physiological parameters of the host. The gene products (enzymes) of ruminal microorganisms take over tasks that are not anchored in the ruminant (host) genome such as the degradation of nutritional components (for example cellulose) that they are not capable of digesting by themselves. The development of new high-throughput methods in molecular biology is rapidly increasing the knowledge of the ruminal microbiome (the totality of microbial organisms in the rumen of a ruminant). One important conclusion is that the ruminal microbial ecosystem is connected directly to the rumen fermentation pattern. To sum up, it can be said that: feeding affects both the ruminal microbiome and the fermentation in the rumen, balanced energy and nitrogen supply are an important key to ensure high profitability and environmental impact in dairy or beef production. This paper will provide new insights into the structural and functional diversity of the ruminal microbiome as well as into the multilayered existing complex interactions (feeding-microbiome-host). However, we are now only beginning to explore the ruminal microbiota of our ruminants. One might assume that the associated research constitutes the deepest basic research, strictly limited to livestock production. But that is just not so! It may be expected that ruminal microbiome research, which has attracted the interest of biogas and biofuel producers for a long time, probably has many things in store for us. The coexistence of microbes with their ruminant hosts - The result of joint co-evolution over millions of years - should be a model for how we could solve, by systematically using microorganisms in specially built facilities, our energy problems and increasing our protein needs in the future. Therefore, this new research area has a high priority for the entire food and energy production based on biomass. The following second report focuses its analysis on the archaea. Source


Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Distl O.,Institute For Tierzucht Und Vererbungsforschung
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2015

The rumen is a pre-gastric fermentation chamber and a very complex microbial ecosystem. It was formed over many millions of years as the result of the co-evolution of ruminants with numerous microorganisms. The success of this co-evolution has long aroused the attention of biotechnologists. For this reason, ruminal microbiota research is not limited to the specific objectives of animal nutrition research, but is increasingly part of total agricultural research, including bioenergy production. very high variety and diversity of microorganisms coexist in the rumen. They are well adapted to the prevailing anoxic conditions and to the redox potential of about - 300 to - 400 mV, a pH of about 6.3 to 6.5 and a constant temperature of about 39° C. The symbiosis between ruminants (hosts) and their microbiome is of mutual benefit. The host provides, for example, nutrients (cellulose and other plant polysaccharides) and ensures optimal living conditions for its ruminal microbiome. For the host, the microorganisms digest specific nutrients and provide proteins, amino acids, and essential vitamins. An extraordinarily high number of bacteria, unicellular eukaryotic protists and other community members are involved in this symbiosis in the rumen. The number of protozoa, mainly ciliates, is about 0.5 million per milliliter of rumen fluid. They live on bacteria, but can also ferment cellulose or starch. In contrast to bacteria, they are not vital to the host. Flagellates are another group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms in the rumen. Methanogenesis (as an energy-consuming process) is reinforced in faunated animals. A reduction in ruminal protozoan density (defaunation) is generally associated with a reduction in methane emissions per kilogram of feed dry matter intake. In addition, yeasts and other anaerobic fungi are present in lower density in the rumen. They are also involved in the degradation of hemicelluloses and other polymers or in the biological conversion of lignin. The understanding of the symbiotic relationships within the ruminal microbiome and between host and his ruminal microbiome is an important key to make milk and beef production more environmentally-friendly, while drawing also important conclusions about future biogas production. Source


Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Distl O.,Institute For Tierzucht Und Vererbungsforschung
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2015

Archaea are an important part of the ruminal microbiome. Although the methanogenic archaea make up only a small part of the microbial biomass in the rumen, they play an extremely important role in the whole rumen physiology. Their ability to utilize hydrogen (H2), reduces the inhibitory effect of H2 on the total microbial fermentation in the rumen. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of archaea in the rumen and describes possible approaches to further reduce the methane emissions of cattle. We are still far from being able to manipulate the ruminal microbiome selectively and on a large scale in practice. However, it remains a strategic objective. Source


Dammgen U.,Institute For Tierzucht Und Vererbungsforschung | Hahne J.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Haenel H.-D.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Rosemann C.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2010

In pig production, air scrubbers are used to reduce emissions of odour, ammonia and particulate matter. Whereas non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter are removed from the exhaust air without further effects on the emission characteristics, the removal of nitrogen species affects the whole production system. This has to be considered in the emission inventory. In particular, the formation of nitrous oxide in the scrubber is highly relevant, but also the emissions from slurry storage and application as well as from the soil after slurry application. The application of air scrubbers also leads to changes in indirect emissions of nitrous oxide. A mass flow model for nitrogen in air scrubbers and the subsequent flows of nitrogen species is presented. Exemplary calculations for commonly used scrubber systems in Germany are shown and the results are discussed. Source

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