Poing, Germany
Poing, Germany

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Haberland A.M.,Institute For Tierzucht | Dodenhoff J.,Institute For Tierzucht | Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2016

The study aimed at assessing the profitability of a genomic selection strategy for the Bavarian sire breed Piétrain. For this purpose, the current breeding program was compared with different alternative schemes. The basic version of the genomic scheme comprised genotyping of 1.200 male selection candidates. As a possibility to expand the genomic strategy, we additionally considered scenarios where also breeding sows were genotyped. All schemes were compared in terms of monetary genetic gain and profit per animal and year. Another comparison was made with regard to total profit of the different scenarios, which was calculated from the total returns and the costs incurring for phenotyping and genotyping. The use of genomic information increased the reliability of breeding values of young boars by 16% on average (from 36% to 52%). Monetary genetic gain increased by 8 to 16% and total profit by about 30% depending on the percentage of breeding sows mated to genotyped young boars and on whether or not sows were genotyped, too. Even when costs are higher, the genotyping of sows seems worthwhile. By this means not only the total profit, but also the size of the calibration set can be increased, which in turn positively affects the reliability of the genomic breeding value estimation. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Dodenhoff J.,Institute For Tierzucht | Schuster M.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft | Wittmann W.,Institute For Tierzucht | Littmann E.,Institute For Tierzucht | And 2 more authors.
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

Since July 2010, Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) is being applied in the two Bavarian pig performance test stations in order to measure drip loss in the longissimus muscle. This method ('Gruber Methode') has proven to be very efficient and currently allows drip loss measurements to be collected for approximately 5000 pigs per year. The data for this study included 16165 observations of drip loss for pigs of dam breeds (Large White and German Landrace and their respective crosses) as well as 3510 observations of drip loss for purebred Piétrain pigs. As expected, drip loss was higher in Piétrain than in dam breeds. Estimates of heritability were 0,28 and 0,66 in dam breeds and in Piétrain, respectively. The well-known close relationship of drip loss with pH 45 min (longissimus muscle) could be confirmed. In purebred Piétrain, estimated genetic correlations between drip loss and feed conversion rate (-0,41), daily gain (0,42) and lean meat content (0,38) were unfavourable. In dam breeds, genetic correlations between drip loss and these traits were small as were the genetic correlations between drip loss measured in purebred Piétrain and these traits measured in crossbred progeny of Piétrain sires. Estimation of breeding values for drip loss will start in 2011. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Genomic selection in dairy cattle breeding programs improves reliabilities for functional traits. Despite previous expectations, results in literature indicate that selection response in functional traits might decrease in intense genomic breeding programs. We examined the consequences of moderate genomic breeding programs on functional traits in the Bavarian Simmental population by means of deterministic calculations. Our calculations comprised all fourteen traits of the current aggregate genotype in Bavarian Simmental. Our results show that genetic gain in protein yield can be increased by 10% assuming a realistic proportion of unproven bulls. Genomic selection in our scenarios hardly affected the expected responses in functional traits. However, some traits showed undesired responses which could be alleviated by using a different breeding goal with higher weights on functional traits. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Edel C.,Institute For Tierzucht | Emmerling R.,Institute For Tierzucht | Neuner S.,Institute For Tierzucht | Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

From December 2010 on a routine application for genomic breeding value estimation in the German-Austrian Fleckvieh population was established that is conducted monthly. Genomic breeding values are estimated for a total of 45 traits. A special aspect of the current implementation is the division of labor between the three evaluation-centers in Bavaria, Austria and Baden-Württemberg that follows the division of labor already established in the conventional breeding value estimation. Starting from a central preparation step for genotypes, results are propagated to the partners for the estimation of genomic breeding values for their specific traits. A two step approach with method GBLUP based on the use of a genomic relationship matrix is used for all traits. Results of the current validation show a substantial gain in realized reliabilities from genomic breeding values over the reliabilities of the simple parent-average. However, gains do not reach values reported for thie Holstein population at a comparable size of the calibration sample, which is probably an effect of the significantly higher effective population size in Fleckvieh. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Plieschke L.,Institute For Tierzucht | Edel C.,Institute For Tierzucht | Bennewitz J.,University of Hohenheim | Emmerling R.,Institute For Tierzucht | Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate imputation quality from two widely used imputation software packages (Flmpute and findhap) in imputing from 50k to HD. Three different aspects with respect to imputation quality were investigated: (1) differences between software programs, (2) differences in the number of HD-genotyped ancestors for four different groups of animals and (3) differences in marker coverage between chromosomes. For this purpose the Illumina chip annotations of two 50k chips (BovineSNP5O vi and v2) and the HD chip (BovineHD) were examined to find large physical gaps between adjacent SNPs or areas on the chromosome with a low marker density. After that, both programs were tested under routine conditions to assess the completeness of imputation and the amount of computational resources required. It turned out that imputation quality is influenced by differences between chromosomes and by differences between groups of animals with respect to the degree of HD genotyped ancestors in the reference population. Both differences had a greater impact on the performance of flndhap as compared to Flmpute. Furthermore using Flmpute resulted in higher imputation accuracy in the considered categories of this study. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Geuder U.,Institute For Tierzucht | Pickl M.,Institute For Tierzucht | Scheidler M.,Lehr | Schuster M.,Abteilung Qualitatssicherung und Untersuchungswesen AQU | Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2012

Bulls of the cattle breeds Fleckvieh, Gelbvieh, Braunvieh and Schwarzbunt (Holstein) were grown and slaughtered on a test farm of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture in Grub. The differences of all traits of fattening and slaughtering performance increased over the last 20 years between the dual purpose breeds Fleckvieh and Gelbvieh on the one hand and the dairy type breeds Braunvieh and Schwarzbunt on the other. Bulls of the breeds Fleckvieh and Gelbvieh performed clearly better than Braunvieh and Schwarzbunt in the traits net weight gain and dressing percentage. Although fat class were very similar, the breeds Fleckvieh and Gelbvieh where better classified than Braunvieh using the EUROP classification. Schwarzbunt performed inferior in all traits. The traits of carcass quality and the proportion of tissues confirmed the correctness of the classification as a basis for prize differentiation of carcasses. The comparison of carcass values resulted in the order FV < GV < BV < SB. The price of the calf turned out to cause the biggest differences in the variable costs between the breeds. Lower expected prices of the carcass of Braunvieh and Schwarzbunt were compensated by the cattle producer with lower prices for calves. Overall the profit for Fleckvieh was superieur to Gelbvieh, Schwarzbunt and Braunvieh.

Zankl A.,Tiergesundheitsdienst Bayern e.V. | Gotz R.,Tiergesundheitsdienst Bayern e.V. | Pausenberger A.,Pfizer | Dodenhoff J.,Institute For Tierzucht | Wittmann W.,Institute For Tierzucht
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2011

A study dealing with the effects of vaccination against boar taint was carried out at the Bavarian Regional Institute for Agriculture, centrally coordinated by the Bavarian Animal Health Services e. V. It focused on the data collected from nursery, fattening and slaughter of a total of 256 male piglets from two batches of a bavarian piglet producer with 300 sows (German Landrace/Large White crossbreads). At day 0 the pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: 125 animals in group 1 were surgically castrated as usual, 121 pigs in group 2 were kept entire for vaccination with Improvac ® during fattening and a small group of 10 animals was kept entire to serve as control group 3. Pigs in group 2 were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period and four to six weeks before slaughter. Whereas, apart from the losses, the results from the nurseries of both castrated and uncastrated piglets were nearly the same, significant differences were found in the results from fattening and slaughter. Vaccinated animals performed significantly better during fattening period in important parameters like daily weight gain and had a better food conversion rate. Carcases of vaccinated animals contained more meat and less fat. Significantly more vaccinated than castrated pigs were arranged in grade E. Due to the improvements in fattening and slaughter performance vaccinated animals yielded more favourable economic results. © Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.

Krogmeier D.,Institute For Tierzucht | Kimmerle A.,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences | Schmidt E.,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences | Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2015

The effect of Alpine pasturing of heifers on the later performance as a dairy cow was analyzed in 8, 541 Simmental and 32, 442 Brown Swiss animals raised on 242 alpine pastures in the years 2000 to 2005. 246, 473 Simmental and 151, 587 Brown Swiss cows without alpine grazing were used as a comparison group. Effects of birth year, herd-year-season, farm size, housing system and pasturing were considered in the analysis. High altitude grazing as heifers increases the length of the productive life by 92 days (P < 0, 001) in Simmental and by 106 days (P < 0, 001) in Brown Swiss Cattle. At the same time age at first calving is enhanced. In both breeds animals with alpine pasturing have significantly higher average milk yields in first, second and third lactation, leading to a higher life time performance of 13.6% (P < 0, 001) in Simmental Cattle and of 12.5% (P < 0, 001) in Brown Swiss Cattle. Fat percentage is decreased by 0.10% and 0.06%, respectively. Simultaneously alpine grazing tends to result in a lower fertility as heifers in both breeds, but in a reduced rate of dystocia and a lower rate of stillbirths. Also somatic cell counts in the first milk recording are significantly lower. A better overall health status caused by natural environmental stress as well as a better constitution of the animals at breeding due to restricted feeding as possible reasons for the advantage of alpine reared heifers, were discussed. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Gotz K.-U.,Institute For Tierzucht
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2016

The report of the Scientific Advisory Board of the German Ministry of Agriculture has been widely discussed. The report analyses problems of modern animal husbandry, gives recommendations for improvements of legislation and controlling and describes which policy measures could support the transformation process of animal husbandry in Germany. However, the report does not present an ethical theory which would give a justification for the claims and allow for a priorisation of measures. This paper deals with some ethical questions from a pragmatic point of view and describes the role of animal science in the transformation process.

Neves H.H.R.,São Paulo State University | Desiderio J.A.,São Paulo State University | Pimentel E.C.G.,Institute For Tierzucht | Scalez D.C.B.,São Paulo State University | Queiroz S.A.,São Paulo State University
Archivos de Zootecnia | Year: 2015

Genotypes of 25 artificial insemination sires were used to study the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the correspondence between pedigree and SNP-based estimators of inbreeding in Brazilian Gyr dairy cattle. Overall, 24,020 SNPs had minor allele frequencies (MAF) greater than 5 % and were used to calculate two measures of LD (r² and D’) for all pairs of markers in each autosome. LD was also used to estimate the effective population size (Ne) at different prior generations. Individual inbreeding coefficients (F) were estimated using either pedigree information (Fped, pedigree traced back up to 9 generations) or marker information. Marker-based estimates of F were derived based on the excess homozygosity (Fhet) in SNP markers and the estimated proportion of the genome located in runs of homozygosity (Froh). The mean LD between adjacent markers averaged across all autosomes was approximately 0.20 and 0.75, measured using r² and D’. Useful LD was identified between markers separated by up to 100 kb when screening this sample of Gyr dairy cattle. The effective population size showed a consistent trend of decay along time, falling below 56 in the last three generations. Weaker correspondence between individual inbreeding estimates based on runs of homozygosity and pedigree was verified in the present study (estimated correlations between Fped and Froh varied from 0.32 to 0.42). It appears to be feasible to apply genomic selection to Gyr cattle in Brazil, but further studies on the extent of linkage disequilibrium using a larger sample of this population are needed. © 2015, Universidad de Cordoba. All rights reserved.

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