Institute For Tierernahrung

Hannover, Germany

Institute For Tierernahrung

Hannover, Germany
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Infections generally have far-reaching effects on the energy and nutrient fluxes in the animal. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract are of particular importance in the growing pig, because these could potentially occur throughout the whole production cycle from birth to slaughter. Under practical conditions, the conventional rearing of pigs is associated with exposure (E. coli, Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira etc.). The contact is perhaps even more intense in extensive production systems. As part of the defense against infection changes are induced in various organs (liver) and tissues (muscle/fat), ranging from a production of acute-phase proteins, a decrease in feed intake up to the breakdown of fat and muscle (favored catabolism). The extent of these processes is determined by the pathogen itself, the pathogen amount and duration of disease. All actions at the cellular and humoral level cause energy (increase in body temperature/fever) and nutrient costs (altered protein metabolism, antibody and protein synthesis products, etc.). The negative effects on digestion (enzymatic processes) and nutrient absorption (transition into the body) can be explained by alterations to the intestinal mucosa under conditions of infection. The availability of amino acids and other nutrients is reduced. Recent studies on effects of a Lawsonia intracellularis infection confirm these relationships. The primary objective of avoiding the aforementioned effects of an infection is a minimized exposure to appropriate pathogens, the implementation of vaccination to reduce clinical symptoms of diseases and its consequences, or possibly an optimized feeding.

Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point of the whole human food chain. During the past decades methods of bioengineering were introduced and used as breeding techniques. The commercial cultivation of GMP increased globally during the last 20 years from 1.6 (1996) to about 180 million hectares in 2015 (about 12% of the global arable area). Maize, soybean, cotton and rapeseed are the most important GMP cultivated during this time. In addition to high and stable plants yields, the first objectives of genetic modifications introduced using bioengineering methods were resistance of plants to insects or plant production AIDS (GMP of the 1st generation; without substantial changes in composition and nutritive value). Later some changes in composition of plants (e.g., biofortification; GMP of the 2nd generation from the view of nutrition) were the objectives of GM-modification. Many feeding studies with laboratory animals and food producing animals were carried out with GMP or co-products from GMP. The objectives of the feeding studies were to analyse animal health and welfare, to follow the ways of transgenic DNA and of the newly expressed proteins and to analyse the influence of GMP of composition and quality of food of animal origin. Feeds from GMP of the 1st generation did not significantly influence composition and quality of food of animal origin. No scientific evidence exists that recombinant DNA and newly expressed proteins show other chemical and physiological properties in animals than endogenous plant products of isolines. Therefore, feeds from GMP of the 1st generation can be considered as substantially equivalent to their isogenic counterparts. Feeds from GM-crops of the 2nd generation (with output traits) may influence composition and quality of food of animal origin and in the case of lower content of undesirable substances improve the feed value of GMP. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Beck P.,Institute For Tierernahrung | Beck P.,University of Hohenheim | Rodehutscord M.,Institute For Tierernahrung | Bennewitz J.,University of Hohenheim | Bessei W.,University of Hohenheim
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

This study estimated the genetic variance components of P utilization in Japanese quail. A parental generation was assembled from an unselected random-bred Japanese fattening quail line. Seven sires and 14 dams were randomly selected, and each sire was paired with 2 dams to produce full and half sibs. A total of 200 unsexed 1-d-old quail with known pedigree were wing-banded and raised during the first 4 d posthatch in groups in floor pens on wood shavings and fed a preexperimental diet that was adequate in all nutrients. Starting on d 5, quail were individually housed in metabolic compartments on P-free filter paper. This started a balance trial with 5 d of adaption and 5 d of total excreta collection. During this balance period, all quail were fed a low-P (3.9 g/kg of DM) corn-soybean meal-based diet with a Ca:P ratio of 1.6:1.0. Phosphorus and Ca utilization were determined individually using the difference in P or Ca intake and the total P or Ca excretion. The average P utilization was 72% and the average Ca utilization was 63%, each with very high variation. Heritabilities were estimated to be 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for P utilization and 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for Ca utilization. Heritabilities were close to the values reported in the literature for broilers and suggest that quail are suitable as a model animal. The SE of the heritability estimates were large. This implies that further studies with a larger sample size are needed to identify genetic and physiological mechanisms that influence P and Ca utilization in Japanese quail. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Hildebrand B.,University of Hohenheim | Boguhn J.,University of Hohenheim | Danicke S.,Institute For Tierernahrung | Rodehutscord M.,University of Hohenheim
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

In this study, the effect of Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale (FUS) at high (60%) and low (30%) concentrate proportion in ruminant rations on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and digestibility was investigated, using in vivo and in vitro methods. Significant effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal degradation and digestibility of crude nutrients and detergent fibre fractions as well as on the pH value and the concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in rumen fluid were found. The production of SCFA was affected, and the degradation of crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre in the rumen was reduced by the inclusion of FUS at high concentrate proportion. The efficiency of microbial crude protein synthesis was higher in diets with 60% than in diets with 30% concentrates, but was impaired in the presence of FUS in vitro at the high concentrate level. Marginal effects of FUS on the amino acid pattern of microbial protein were detected. It was concluded that the use of FUS in high concentrate diets can influence ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis at a dietary deoxynivalenol concentration below 5mg/kg dry matter. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

While in laboratories and in meat production primarily larger breeds of rabbits are used smaller ones (e.g. dwarf rabbits) are predominantly kept as pets. At the same time, data on nutrition physiology and digestive capacity generally gathered for larger rabbit breeds are sometimes indiscriminately applied to dwarf rabbits. However, in feeding studies on digestibility in different rabbits breeds (smaller and greater ones) dwarf rabbits showed a higher digestibility rate than New Zealand White or Belgian Giants. Therefore, this study was conducted to illustrate physiological parameters in the intestinal tract and possible breed-related peculiarities. The experiment was carried out with 5 adult female rabbits each of the breeds Belgian Giant (BG; Ø BW 7.27 ± 0.18 kg), New Zealand White (NZ; Ø BW 4.36 ± 0.60 kg), and Dwarf rabbit (DR; Ø BW 1.82 ± 0.30 kg), that were fed a pelleted complete diet on the basis of green meal. After an adaptation of 10 days the rabbits fasted about 24 hours. On the next day they get 1 g diet per 100 g BW. Chyme of distinct individual compartments (stomach, duodenum, caecum, proximal/distal colon, rectum) was analysed 6 h ppr. using standard analyses methods (nutrients, pH, NH3, FFA, lipopolysaccharides). Particle sizes in chyme and faeces were determined via wet sieve analysis. It can be concluded, that dwarf rabbits are more similar to New Zeeland white than to German Giants. In dwarfs as well as in New Zealand white a higher chewing activity of the offered diets could be observed, measured by the proportion of the particle sizes in chyme and faeces. A higher proportion of finely ground particles, that was microbially degraded after a reflux into the caecum, led in a higher extent to caecotrophia and therefore to a higher digestibility of nutrients in dwarfs and new zeeland white compared to German Giants. All in all it could not be decided if a faster passage rate of the chyme from the gastric via duodenum into the caecum - as it could be observed in the dwarfs - led to higher digestibility rates by a longer rentention time and a higher hydrolysis of the feed in the caecum. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer.

Visscher C.,Institute For Tierernahrung
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2015

In light of the efforts in pig farming, to further reduce the use of antibiotic agents, also approaches in the field of animal nutrition will be discussed as a possible part of the solution. With the use of probiotics certain hopes are linked. Today probiotics are ascribed features such as competition with pathogenic microorganisms for nutrients and binding sites on the epithelium, the production of various antimicrobial components against pathogenic microorganisms, as well as interfering with the immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Especially in swine, the phase of weaning of piglets from the sows is of interest. Here the piglets are particularly susceptible to diarrheal diseases of various origins. The immaturity of the intestinal immune system and the elimination of with breast milk ingested immunoglobulin A and other bioactive substances explain the susceptibility of such diseases. Although previous studies on the effects of probiotic bacteria in pigs often show positive effects on the performance and health, the positive experiences are not consistent. In view of the reduction deemed necessary concerning the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals, approaches for the targeted use of probiotic bacteria will be of interest.

Beyer M.,University of Munster | Danicke S.,Institute For Tierernahrung | Rohweder D.,Institute For Tierernahrung | Humpf H.-U.,University of Munster
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2010

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of most wide-spread mycotoxins in cereal commodities, and animal feed is prevalently contaminated at high concentrations. This poses a problem in animal nutrition as especially pigs are very sensitive to DON. An effective process for the reduction of the DON concentration is the treatment of contaminated feed with sodium bisulfite (SBS) whereby DON is transformed into DON-sulfonate (DONS). Although the success of this treatment has been confirmed in several feeding studies, it is unexplained if the decrease of DON is accompanied with a coincident increase of DONS. For this reason, we developed a method for the analysis of DONS using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. In order to investigate the correlation between DON and DONS concentrations during SBS-treatment, DON-contaminated wheat was treated with SBS and stored for up to 36 days. At defined timepoints of this treatment, samples were analyzed for DON and DONS using stable isotope labeled standards. The preparation, purification, and structure elucidation of DONS, and the HILIC-HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of DONS as well as the results of two storage experiments are presented in this paper. © Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer 2010.

Boguhn J.,University of Hohenheim | Neumann D.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Helm A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Strobel E.,Institute For Tierernahrung | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the concentrate proportion and Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale (FCT) in the diet on nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and structure of the microbial community, utilising a rumen simulation technique and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles based on PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Four diets containing 60% or 30% concentrates on a dry matter basis with or without FCT were incubated. The fermentation of nutrients and microbial protein synthesis was measured. On the last day of incubation, microbial mass was obtained from the vessel liquid, DNA was extracted and PCR-primers targeting archaea, fibrobacter, clostridia, bifidobacteria, bacillii, fungi, and bacteria were applied to separately study the individual taxonomic groups with SSCP. The concentrate proportion affected the fermentation and the microbial community, but not the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Neither the fermentation of organic matter nor the synthesis and composition of microbial protein was affected by FCT. The fermentation of detergent fibre fractions was lower in diets containing FCT compared to diets with uncontaminated triticale. Except for the clostridia group, none of the microbial groups were affected by presence of FCT. In conclusion, our results give no indication that the supplementation of FCT up to a deoxynivalenol concentration in the diet of 5 mg per kg dry matter affects the fermentation of organic matter and microbial protein synthesis. These findings are independent of the concentrate level in the diets. A change in the microbial community composition of the genus Clostridia may be the reason for a reduction in the cellulolytic activity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Institute For Tierernahrung
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Planta | Year: 2013

Homogentisate is the precursor in the biosynthesis of -tocopherol and plastoquinone-9 in chloroplasts. It is formed of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate of the shikimate pathway by the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. In experiments with spinach the dioxygenase was shown to be localized predominatedly in the chloroplasts. Envelope membranes exhibit the highest specific activity, however, because of the high stromal portion of chloroplasts, 60-80% of the total activity is housed in the stroma. The incorporation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate into 2-methyl-6-phytylquinol as the first intermediate in the tocopherol synthesis by the two-step-reaction: 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Homogentisate[Formula: see text] 2-Methyl-6-phytylquinol was demonstrated by using envelope membranes. Homogentisate originates directly from 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate of the shikimate pathway. Additionally, a bypass exists in chloroplasts which forms 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate from tyrosine by an L-amino-acid oxidase of the thylakoids and in peroxisomes by a transaminase reaction. Former results about the dioxygenase in peroxisomes were verified.

PubMed | Institute For Tierernahrung
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

Two preliminary tests were conducted with piglets and chicken to study the influence of feeding ergot, which was specified concerning alkaloid content and pattern, on growth performance and health parameters. Treatments were 5 ergot concentrations in the diets (0; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2; 0.4%) which were fed to 516 piglets for 35 days and 528 chicken for 21 days. A content of 0.4% ergot in the diet decreased feed intake and growth performance of piglets significantly. Contents of 0.1% and 0.2% ergot in the diet showed a tendency towards improved weight gain as compared to controls. Feed to gain ratio was found to be the lowest in the group with 0.2% ergot in the diet. In the study conducted with chicken significant effects of ergot feeding on growth performance were not detected. With increased ergot concentrations in the diet the weight of hearts decreased, which proved to be significant only at a level of 0.2 % ergot in the diet. Moderate to severe inflammations were found in the proximal duodenum of the ergot fed groups, which, however, were not dosedependent. Further studies with ergot from other sources differing in alkaloid content and pattern are necessary to evaluate toxic alkaloid levels for the various animal species or categories.

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