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Yoshimori A.,Institute for Theoretical Medicine Inc. | Oyama T.,Chiyoda Corporation | Takahashi S.,Institute for Theoretical Medicine Inc. | Abe H.,Chiyoda Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Tyrosinase inhibitors have become increasingly critical agents in cosmetic, agricultural, and medicinal products. Although a large number of tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported, almost all the inhibitors were unfortunately evaluated by using commercial available mushroom tyrosinase. Here, we examined the inhibitory effects of three isomers of thujaplicin (α, β, and γ) on human tyrosinase and analyzed their binding modes using homology model and docking studies. As the results, γ-thujaplicin was found to strongly inhibit human tyrosinase with the IC50 of 1.15 μM, extremely superior to a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor kojic acid (IC50 = 571.17 μM). MM-GB/SA binding free energy decomposition analyses suggested that the potent inhibitory activity of γ-thujaplicin may be due to the interactions with His367, Ile368, and Val377 (hot spot amino acid residues) in human tyrosinase. Furthermore, the binding mode of α-thujaplicin indicated that Val377 and Ser380 may cause van der Waals clashes with the isopropyl group of α-thujaplicin. These results provide a novel structural insight into the hot spot of human tyrosinase for the specific binding of γ-thujaplicin and a way to optimize not only thujaplicins but also other lead compounds as specific inhibitors for human tyrosinase in a rational manner. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Takahashi S.,Institute for Theoretical Medicine Inc. | Kamiya T.,Chiyoda Corporation | Saeki K.,Tokyo University of Science | Nezu T.,Tokyo University of Science | And 7 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Tyrosinase inhibitors are important agents for cosmetic products. We examined here the inhibitory effects of three isomers of thujaplicins (α, β and γ) on mushroom tyrosinase and analyzed their binding modes using a homology model from the crystal structure of Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus tyrosinase (PDB ID: 1wx2). All the thujaplicins were found to be competitive inhibitors and γ-thujaplicin has the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.07 μM). It is noted that there are good correlations between their observed IC50 values and their binding free energies calculated by MM-GB/SA. The binding modes of thujaplicins were predicted to be similar to that of Tyr98 of caddie protein (ORF378), which was co-crystallized with S. castaneoglobisporus tyrosinase. Furthermore, free energy decomposition analysis indicated that the potent inhibitory activity of γ-thujaplicin is due to the interactions with His242, Val243 and Pro257 (hot spot amino acid residues) at the active site of tyrosinase. These results provide a novel structural insight into the hot spot of mushroom tyrosinase for the specific binding of γ-thujaplicin. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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