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Kammer A.,University of Cologne | Niehues J.,Cologne Institute for Economic Research IW | Peichl A.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA
Journal of European Social Policy | Year: 2012

Welfare state typologies are generally based on the institutional design of welfare policies. In this paper we analyse whether such typologies also persist when they are applied to effective redistributive outcomes of welfare states' tax and transfer policies. In contrast to the widespread use of macro indicators, our empirical analysis relies on internationally comparable microdata in order to account for the distribution of resources across households. We perform a hierarchical cluster analysis and check whether the classical typology for Western European welfare states reproduces the typical patterns when it comes to effective economic outcomes. We find that the established welfare regimes not only differ in their welfare state institutions as is known, but also in their economic outcomes. In particular, we identify the social-democratic, conservative, liberal and southern welfare regimes. Belgium and the Netherlands emerge as hybrid cases lying between the social-democratic and conservative model. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Khamis M.,Wesleyan University | Prakash N.,University of Connecticut | Siddique Z.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization | Year: 2012

We examine spending on consumption items which have signaling value in social interactions across groups with distinctive social identities in India, where social identities are defined by caste and religious affiliations. Using nationally representative micro data on household consumption expenditures, we find that disadvantaged caste groups such as Other Backward Castes spend 8 percent more on visible consumption than Brahmin and High Caste groups while social groups such as Muslims spend 14 percent less, after controlling for differences in permanent income, household assets and household demographic composition. The differences across social groups are significant and robust and these differences persist within different sub populations. We find that the higher spending of OBC households on visible consumption is diverted from education spending, while Muslim households divert spending from visible consumption and education towards greater food spending. Additionally, we find that these consumption patterns can be partly explained as a result of the status signaling nature of the consumption items. We also discuss alternative sources of differences in consumption patterns across groups which stem from religious observance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Herbst D.,Princeton University | Mas A.,Princeton University | Mas A.,National Bureau of Economic Research NBER | Mas A.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA
Science | Year: 2015

We compare estimates of peer effects on worker output in laboratory experiments and field studies from naturally occurring environments. The mean study-level estimate of a change in a worker's productivity in response to an increase in a co-worker's productivity (γ) is γ = 0.12 (SE = 0.03, nstudies = 34), with a between-study standard deviation τ = 0.16. The mean estimated γ-values are close between laboratory and field studies (γlab - γfield = 0.04, P = 0.55, nlab = 11, nfield = 23), as are estimates of between-study variance τ2 (τ2lab - τ2field = -0:003, P = 0.89). The small mean difference between laboratory and field estimates holds even after controlling for sample characteristics such as incentive schemes and work complexity (γlab - γfield = 0.03, P = 0.62, nsamples = 46). Laboratory experiments generalize quantitatively in that they provide an accurate description of the mean and variance of productivity spillovers. Source


Hammond G.W.,West Virginia University | Tosun M.S.,University of Nevada, Reno | Tosun M.S.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2011

We analyze the impact of fiscal decentralization on U.S. county population, employment, and real income growth. Our findings suggest that government organization matters for local economic growth, but that the impacts vary by government unit and by economic indicator. We find that single-purpose governments per square mile have a positive impact on metropolitan population and employment growth, but no significant impact on nonmetropolitan counties. In contrast, the fragmentation of general-purpose governments per capita has a negative impact on employment and population growth in nonmetropolitan counties. Our results suggest that local government decentralization matters differently for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Brown J.D.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA | Hotchkiss J.L.,Georgia State University | Quispe-Agnoli M.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2013

Using administrative data from the state of Georgia, this paper finds that, on average, across all firms, employing undocumented workers reduces a firm's hazard of exit by 19 percent. The advantage to firms from employing undocumented workers increases as more firms in the industry do so, decreases with the skill level of the firm's workers, increases with the breadth of a firm's market, and increases with the labor intensity of the firm's production process. © 2012, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Source

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