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Gonzalez-Dominguez E.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Caffi T.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Bodini A.,CNR Institute for Applied Mathematics and Information Technologies | Galbusera L.,JRC Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen | Rossi V.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

A fuzzy control system (FCS) was developed to determine whether a fungicide application is needed to control Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew, in a vineyard. The FCS was conceived as an expert system to be used in connection with vite.net, which is a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable vineyard management. Using the information provided by the DSS, the FCS was able to reproduce the expert reasoning regarding the decision to apply a fungicide against P. viticola in a vineyard. The FCS uses the following information provided by the DSS as input variables: i) grapevine phenology; ii) risk of primary infection; iii) abundance of secondary sporangia; iv) risk of secondary infection; and v) residual protection provided by the last fungicide application. All possible combinations of these inputs are expressed as IF-THEN rules; fuzzification interface, inference engine, and defuzzification interface provide the FCS output as a label: ‘treatment’ or ‘no-treatment’. The FCS was tested by comparing the scheduling of copper fungicides against P. viticola in 18 organic vineyards of Italy as determined by a panel of five experts vs. the FCS. The FCS was able to reproduce the expert reasoning with an overall accuracy of 0.992. The probability that the FCS recommended a treatment given that the expert panel did was 0.878, and the probability that the FCS did not recommend a treatment given that the expert panel did not was 1. Once the FCS is incorporated into the DSS, it will help inexpert viticulturists in taking right decisions about downy mildew control. © 2015 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging Source

Karaarslan E.,Mugla University | Perez A.G.,JRC Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen | Siaterlis C.,JRC Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2014

The Internet has become a critical asset for both the economy and the society. Realistic experimentation environments are needed to study and improve the resilience and the stability of the Internet. In this paper, we propose a methodology that allows to: (1) model an Internet-like topology, (2) recreate the model with realistic parameters and conditions, (3) reproduce large-scale incidents, and (4) test various what-if scenarios. As a prood of concept, a valid abstraction of the Europe Internet backbone is created where Network Service Providers (NSP) are connected to each other in various Internet Exchange Points (IXP). This topology is emulated on a Emulab-based testbed. A well-known BGP-route hijacking incident is replayed and studied under hypothetical scenarios of network operators reactions and collaboration. The results of the experiments are then analysed showing the potential value of the proposed methodology. © 2013 Springer International Publishing. Source

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