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Jankovic M.,University of Belgrade | Jankovic M.,Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy
Journal of Medical Biochemistry

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous and complex co- and post-translational modification leading to glycan formation, i.e. oligosaccharide chains covalently attached to peptide backbones. The significance of changes in glycosylation for the beginning, progress and outcome of different human diseases is widely recognized. Thus, glycans are considered as unique structures to diagnose, predict susceptibility to and monitor the progression of disease. In the «omics» era, the glycome, a glycan analogue of the proteome and genome, holds considerable promise as a source of new biomarkers. In the design of a strategy for biomarker discovery, new principles and platforms for the analysis of relatively small amounts of numerous glycoproteins are needed. Emerging glycomics technologies comprising different types of mass spectrometry and affinity-based arrays are next in line to deliver new analytical procedures in the field of biomarkers. Screening different types of glycomolecules, selection of differentially expressed components, their enrichment and purification or identification are the most challenging parts of experimental and clinical glycoproteomics. This requires large-scale technologies enabling high sensitivity, proper standardization and validation of the methods to be used. Further progress in the field of applied glycoscience requires an integrated systematic approach in order to explore properly all opportunities for disease diagnosis. Source

Durovic S.,University of Belgrade | Jakovljevic K.,University of Belgrade | Buzurovic U.,Natural History Museum | Niketic M.,Natural History Museum | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Botany

The aim of the present study was to compare trace element profiles and the differences in uptake and translocation of trace elements in plants from five populations (three from Greece and two from Serbia) belonging to three subspecies of Silene parnassica Boiss. & Sprun. growing on ophiolitic substrates. For comparison of the subspecies, bioconcentration and translocation factors were used, as well as Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for concentrations of elements in root and shoot samples. Chemical characteristics of the soil samples (pH, organic C, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb) and plant samples (P2O5, K2O, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb) were determined, as well as bioconcentration and translocation factors and correlation matrices. All the three subspecies acted as strong Ni accumulators, with equal concentrations of Ni in roots and shoots, the values being several times higher than 100mgkg-1, exceeding concentrations of available Ni in the soil. Concentrations of Cu and Cr in the aboveground plant tissues in samples from three localities were several times higher than expected, even for plants growing on metalliferous soils, exceeding, by multiple times, the available concentrations in the soil samples. © CSIRO 2016. Source

Mihajlovski K.R.,University of Belgrade | Carevic M.B.,University of Belgrade | Devic M.L.,Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy | Siler-Marinkovic S.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation

A novel strain of Paenibacillus chitinolyticus CKS1 was isolated from forest soil and identified as a potent cellulase producer. The strain was able to grow on various commercial substrates including microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and cellobiose but also on lignocellulosic waste material such as medicinal herbs waste and sawdust. On all these substrates the strain produced cellulase composed of two subunits (~70 and ~45 kDa) that was active on CMC, Avicel and filter paper. The maximal Avicelase activity (1.94 U/ml) was reached in a medium that contained 0.1% (w/v) of medicinal herbs waste, 3 g l-1 of yeast extract and 5.0 g l-1 of casein hydrolysate in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7, after 48 h of incubation at 30 °C. The Avicelase performed optimally at 80 °C and at pH 4.8. Addition of K+ increased the Avicelase activity almost three fold and the enzyme retained 48.39% of the initial activity after 60 min. The product of Avicel and CMC hydrolysis was glucose with traces of other soluble sugars, indicating that the crude cellulase produced on waste material using the novel P. chitinolyticus strain CKS 1 could be used in eco-friendly processes of cellulose bioconversion, such as enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials in processes performed under acidophilic conditions and high temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nestorovic N.,University of Belgrade | Ristic N.,University of Belgrade | Manojlovic-Stojanoski M.,University of Belgrade | Sosic-Jurjevic B.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology

The effects of multiple somatostatin (SRIH-14) treatment on the pituitary-ovarian axis were examined in infant rats. Female Wistar rats received subcutaneously two daily 20 μg/100g b.w. doses for five consecutive days (from 11 to 15 days of age). Changes in cell volume, volume density and number per unit area (mm2) of follicle-stimulating (FSH), luteinizing (LH) and somatotropic (GH) immunolabeled cells were evaluated by stereology and morphometry. Serum FSH and LH concentrations were determined by RIA. Ovaries were analyzed by simple point counting of follicles. SRIH-14 treatment significantly reduced FSH and LH cell volume, while their volume density and number per unit area were unaltered. Serum concentrations of FSH and LH were significantly reduced. Volume and volume density of GH cells was significantly decresed after SRIH-14 treatment, while their number per unit area was unaltered. In the ovary, SRIH-14 induced a significant increase in the percentage of primordial follicles followed by a significant decrease in percentage of primary follicles. The number of healthy and atretic preantral follicles was unchanged. It can be concluded that SRIH-14 treatment during the infantile period markedly inhibits pituitary FSH, LH and GH cells. In the ovary, SRIH-14 acts by inhibiting initial folliculogenesis without affecting atretic processes. Source

Sosic-Jurjevic B.,University of Belgrade | Filipovic B.,University of Belgrade | Ajdzanovic V.,University of Belgrade | Savin S.,Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Biology and Medicine

High intake of soybean phytoestrogens, isoflavones genistein (G) and daidzein (D), has been associated with health benefits. However, isoflavones were reported to affect adversely thyroid function in the presence of other goitrogenic factors. As the thyroid gland becomes functionally impaired with age, we examined whether supplementary doses of G or D would affect morphology and function of pituitary-thyroid axis in middle-aged male rats. Sixteen-month-old orchidectomized Wistar rats were treated with 10 mg/kg of either G or D, while the control sham-operated and orchidectomized group received just the vehicle for three weeks. The animals were fed soy-free diet with increased iodine content, and killed 24 h after the last treatment. Their pituitaries and thyroids were excised and prepared for further immunohistochemical and morphometric investigation. The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4 and T3, in the serum were determined. In both isoflavone-treated groups, pituitary TSH-immunopositive cells had increased cellular volume and relative volume density (P< 0.05), as well as increased serum TSH levels (P< 0.05) in comparison to the controls; their thyroid tissue was characterized by increased volume of thyroglobulin-immunopositive epithelium (P< 0.05), epithelial height and index of activation rate (P< 0.05), while the volume of luminal colloid, and total serum T4 and T3 levels decreased (P< 0.05) in comparison to the controls. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence that both G and D can induce microfollicular changes in the thyroid tissue and reduce the level of thyroid hormones in Orx middle-aged male rats, a model of andropause. This reduction consequently led to a feedback stimulation of pituitary TSH cells. The detected stimulatory effect was higher in the daidzein-treated rats. Copyright © 2010 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Source

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