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Hemberger S.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Pedrolli D.B.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Stolz J.,TU Munich | Vogl C.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
BMC Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Background: The bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is not a natural riboflavin overproducer, has been converted into an excellent production strain by classical mutagenesis and metabolic engineering. To our knowledge, the enhancement of riboflavin excretion from the cytoplasm of overproducing cells has not yet been considered as a target for (further) strain improvement. Here we evaluate the flavin transporter RibM from Streptomyces davawensis with respect to improvement of a riboflavin production strain.Results: The gene ribM from S. davawensis, coding for a putative facilitator of riboflavin uptake, was codon optimized (ribMopt) for expression in B. subtilis. The gene ribMoptwas functionally introduced into B. subtilis using the isopropyl-β-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible expression plasmid pHT01: Northern-blot analysis of total RNA from IPTG treated recombinant B. subtilis cells revealed a ribMoptspecific transcript. Western blot analysis showed that the his6-tagged heterologous gene product RibM was present in the cytoplasmic membrane. Expression of ribM in Escherichia coli increased [14C]riboflavin uptake, which was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Expression of ribMoptsupported growth of a B. subtilis ΔribB::ErmrΔribU::Kanrdouble mutant deficient in riboflavin synthesis (ΔribB) and also deficient with respect to riboflavin uptake (ΔribU). Expression of ribMoptincreased roseoflavin (a toxic riboflavin analog produced by S. davawensis) sensitivity of a B. subtilis ΔribU::Kanrstrain. Riboflavin synthesis by a model riboflavin B. subtilis production strain overproducing RibM was increased significantly depending on the amount of the inducer IPTG.Conclusions: The energy independent flavin facilitator RibM could in principle catalyze riboflavin export and thus may be useful to increase the riboflavin yield in a riboflavin production process using a recombinant RibM overproducing B. subtilis strain (or any other microorganism). © 2011 Hemberger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pedrolli D.B.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Nakanishi S.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Barile M.,University of Bari | Mansurova M.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The non-pathogenic Gram-positive soil bacterium Streptomyces davawensis synthesizes the riboflavin (vitamin B 2) analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin (AF). Both compounds are antibiotics. Notably, a number of other riboflavin analogs are currently under investigation with regard to the development of novel antiinfectives. As a first step towards understanding the metabolism of riboflavin analogs in humans, the key enzymes flavokinase (EC 2.7.1.26) and FAD synthetase (EC 2.7.7.2) were studied. Human flavokinase efficiently converted RoF and AF to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), respectively. Human FAD synthetase accepted RoFMN but not AFMN as a substrate. Consequently, roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD) was synthesized by the latter enzyme but not 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). The cofactor analogs RoFMN, AFMN and RoFAD have different physicochemical properties as compared to FMN and FAD. Thus, the cofactor analogs have the potential to render flavoenzymes inactive, which may negatively affect human metabolism. RoF, but not AF, was found to inhibit human flavokinase. In summary, we suggest that AF has a lower toxic potential and may be better suited as a lead structure to develop antimicrobial compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Pedrolli D.B.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Matern A.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Wang J.,Yale University | Ester M.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Streptomyces davawensis is the only organism known to synthesize the antibiotic roseoflavin, a riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Roseoflavin is converted to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm of target cells. (Ribo-)Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin. Streptomyces davawensis is roseoflavin resistant, and the closely related bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is roseoflavin sensitive. The two bacteria served as models to investigate roseoflavin resistance of S. davawensis and to analyze the mode of action of roseoflavin in S. coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the ribB FMN riboswitch of S. davawensis (in contrast to the corresponding riboswitch of S. coelicolor) is able to discriminate between the two very similar flavins FMN and RoFMN and shows opposite responses to the latter ligands. © 2012 The Author(s).


PubMed | Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Protein expression and purification | Year: 2013

A novel Pichia pastoris expression vector (pEZT7) for the production of recombinant proteins employing prokaryotic bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) (EC 2.7.7.6) and the corresponding promoter pT7 was constructed. The gene for T7 RNAP was stably introduced into the P. pastoris chromosome 2 under control of the (endogenous) constitutive P. pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter (pGAP). The gene product T7 RNAP was engineered to contain a nuclear localization signal, which directed recombinant T7 RNAP to the P. pastoris nucleus. To promote translation of uncapped T7 RNAP derived transcripts, the internal ribosomal entry site from hepatitis C virus (HCV-IRES) was inserted directly upstream of the multiple cloning site of pEZT7. A P. pastoris autonomous replicating sequence (PARS1) was integrated into pEZT7 enabling propagation and recovery of plasmids from P. pastoris. Rapid amplification of 5 complementary DNA ends (5 RACE) experiments employing the test plasmid pEZT7-EGFP revealed that transcripts indeed initiated at pT7. HCV-IRES mediated translation of the latter mRNAs, however, was not observed. Surprisingly, HCV-IRES and the reverse complement of PARS1 (PARS1rc) were both found to display significant promoter activity as shown by 5 RACE.


PubMed | Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical pharmacology | Year: 2011

The non-pathogenic Gram-positive soil bacterium Streptomyces davawensis synthesizes the riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin (AF). Both compounds are antibiotics. Notably, a number of other riboflavin analogs are currently under investigation with regard to the development of novel antiinfectives. As a first step towards understanding the metabolism of riboflavin analogs in humans, the key enzymes flavokinase (EC 2.7.1.26) and FAD synthetase (EC 2.7.7.2) were studied. Human flavokinase efficiently converted RoF and AF to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), respectively. Human FAD synthetase accepted RoFMN but not AFMN as a substrate. Consequently, roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD) was synthesized by the latter enzyme but not 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). The cofactor analogs RoFMN, AFMN and RoFAD have different physicochemical properties as compared to FMN and FAD. Thus, the cofactor analogs have the potential to render flavoenzymes inactive, which may negatively affect human metabolism. RoF, but not AF, was found to inhibit human flavokinase. In summary, we suggest that AF has a lower toxic potential and may be better suited as a lead structure to develop antimicrobial compounds.


PubMed | Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nucleic acids research | Year: 2012

Streptomyces davawensis is the only organism known to synthesize the antibiotic roseoflavin, a riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Roseoflavin is converted to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm of target cells. (Ribo-)Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin. Streptomyces davawensis is roseoflavin resistant, and the closely related bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is roseoflavin sensitive. The two bacteria served as models to investigate roseoflavin resistance of S. davawensis and to analyze the mode of action of roseoflavin in S. coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the ribB FMN riboswitch of S. davawensis (in contrast to the corresponding riboswitch of S. coelicolor) is able to discriminate between the two very similar flavins FMN and RoFMN and shows opposite responses to the latter ligands.

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