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Dahmen N.,Institute for Research In Catalysis | Arnold U.,Institute for Research In Catalysis | Djordjevic N.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Henrich T.,Institute for Research In Catalysis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2015

In regard to climate protection and saving of fossil resources, renewable and sustainable sources for energy, materials and chemicals are required. Among them, biomass is the only renewable carbon source and should be used preferentially for chemicals and materials production on a long term. Also, biomass can significantly contribute to mobility by different types of biofuels. By gasification of biomass or suitable bio-based intermediates the whole variety of today's fuels is accessible on a synthetic basis by appropriate syntheses such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol reactions. In recent process developments, gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning and syntheses processes are conducted at elevated pressures up to 100 bar. Regarding the special features by using biomass as a feedstock, partly with high temperatures and at increased pressure a variety of specific scientific and technical questions arise along such a process chain. At the example of the bioliq® pilot project actually developed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) for synthetic fuels production from biomass, spotlights are provided giving insight into the manifold multidisciplinary area of high pressure research and technology in this field of research and development. In this context, high pressure aspects in gasification, gas cleaning and synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wolff C.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Beutel S.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Scheper T.,Institute for Technical Chemistry
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kolb T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Kolb T.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Eberhard M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Eberhard M.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | And 12 more authors.
DGMK Tagungsbericht | Year: 2013

Synthetic fuels from biomass may contribute to the future motor fuel supply to a considerable extent. To overcome the logistical hurdles connected with the industrial use of large quantities of biomass, the de-central / central bioliq® concept has been developed. It is based on a regional pre-treatment of biomass for energy densification by fast pyrolysis. The intermediate referred to as biosyncrude enables an economic long-range transportation. Collected from a number of those pyrolysis plants, the biosyncrude is converted into synthesis gas, which is cleaned, conditioned and further converted to fuels or chemicals in a central plant of reasonable industrial size.Gasification is performed in an entrained flow gasifier at pressures adjusted to the subsequent chemical synthesis. For increased fuel flexibility and utilization of ash rich feed materials, the gasifier is equipped with a cooling screen operated in slagging mode. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT, a bioliq® pilot plant has been erected for demonstration of the whole process chain. The 2 MWth fast pyrolysis plant is in operation since 2009; the 5 MWth / 80 bars gasifier, the hot gas cleaning section and the gasoline synthesis via DME were erected in 2011/12. Commissioning of that plant complex was completed in 2013.


Kruse A.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Bernolle P.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Dahmen N.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Dinjus E.,Institute for Technical Chemistry | Maniam P.,Institute for Technical Chemistry
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2010

The reaction of intermediates formed during hydrothermal biomass gasification (HBG) with each other or with hydrogen produced by the water-gas shift reaction has a significant influence on the process. To understand these reactions, the conversion of different C4 compounds (1-butanol, 1-butanal, cis-butendiol) was investigated in a batch reactor. These compounds carry different functional groups also found in intermediates of HBG. All compounds react to make products with aromatic ring systems, which shows that the intermediates can react with each other and aromatic rings are formed independently of the functional groups. The HBG intermediates can also react with hydrogen formed via the water-gas shift reaction (CO + H2O CO2 + H2). This is shown by the reaction of deuterated glucose in H2O. The reaction of hydrogen originating from water leads to the formation of C-H bonds not present in the feedstock. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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