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Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Antonov M.,Tallinn University of Technology
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to investigate the resistance to rolling contact fatigue of a-C:H:W and MoS2/Ti coated gears. The investigation of rolling contact fatigue was realised by means of a gear test rig using FZG PT C/10/90 pitting test. Four material combinations of gears were tested: wheel and pinion uncoated, wheel and pinion coated, wheel coated and pinion uncoated as well as wheel uncoated and pinion coated. The tests were performed using for lubrication mineral gear oil of API GL-5 performance level and 80W/90 viscosity grade. The results indicate that for the coated/coated pair (wheel and pinion coated) and uncoated/coated pair (uncoated wheel and coated pinion) a significant decrease in the fatigue life compared to the uncoated gears was obtained. The best results were obtained in the case of the coated/uncoated pair (a-C:H:W coated wheel and uncoated pinion) - even fourfold increase in the fatigue life was observed. This shows a very high potential of application of PVD coatings for gears. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications.


Trzos M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

The paper presents the results of research aimed at differentiation between the API GL performance levels of automotive gear oils. Tribological tests were conducted with the use of two different tribotesters. A four-ball apparatus and a crossed-cylinder wear tester were employed. Several dozen oils were tested, and various standardised measurements of their lubricating properties have been determined. Then, the measurements of the tribological properties were related to the particular API GL performance levels and the results obtained in the two tribotesters were compared.The most known measurements, which characterise the antiwear and extreme-pressure properties of lubricants, were determined with the use of the four-ball apparatus. Using the crossed-cylinder wear tester, the load-carrying capacity of the oil has been assessed through the Brugger test.The statistical analysis of the research results has shown the possibility of the differentiation between the API GL performance levels of automotive gear oils on the basis of the Brugger test. The Brugger test is characterised by relatively low time-consumption, and the crossed-cylinder wear tester is relatively inexpensive, thus this approach may give significant benefits to the laboratory testing automotive gear oils. © 2012 Politechnika WrocŁawska.


Chmielewski M.,Institute Of Electronic Materials Technology of Poland | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Kalbarczyk M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

In the present study, the influence of the volume fraction of graphene on the tribological properties of copper matrix composites was examined. The composites were obtained by the spark plasma sintering technique in a vacuum. The designed sintering conditions (temperature 950°C, pressing pressure 50 MPa, time 15 min) allowed obtaining almost fully dense materials. The tribological behaviour of copper-graphene composite materials was analysed. The tests were conducted using a CSM Nano Tribometer employing ball-on-plate tribosystem. The friction and wear behaviour of copper-graphene composite materials were investigated. An optical microscope, interferometer, and scanning electron microscope were used to analyse the worn surfaces. In friction zone, the graphene acts as a solid lubricant, which results in the increase in the content in the composites positively influencing the tribological characteristics of the steel-Cu-graphene composite. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Michalak M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Osuch-Slomka E.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Maldonado-Cortes D.,University of Monterrey | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

The aim of the paper was to investigate the temperature effect on the wear mechanism of AlCrN coated components. The coating was deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition process (PVD) on WC/Co substrate. Tribological tests were performed in sliding conditions using a high temperature T-21 tribotester, produced by ITeE-PIB, Radom. The tests were performed in a ball-ondisc configuration (Si3N4 ceramic ball) under dry friction conditions at room temperature, 600 °C and 750 °C. An optical microscope, interferometer, and scanning electron microscope were used to analyse the worn surfaces. Following this study, it was found that the wear resistance of the coating AlCrN tribosystem depended on the temperature. The most wear was reported at room temperature. At 600 °C, the intensity of wear of the coating was 4-fold lower, and at 750 °C, wear was 6-fold lower than at room temperature. High temperature wear resistance of AlCrN coating involves creating a protective oxide layer. Performed analysis of the structure of the surface layer showed a much higher content of oxygen in wear scar than outside. At high temperatures, friction additionally intensified the oxidation process, thus the amount of oxygen in surface layer increased with temperature. Oxide layer, Al2O3 and Cr2O3 probably created at high temperature was a barrier to further oxidation of the coating and had very high wear resistance at high temperatures. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Tribology International | Year: 2013

To prove that a candidate MTF meets the requirements of a given API performance level, one needs to perform extremely expensive and time-consuming tribological tests on entire lorry units. A new, quick and inexpensive four-ball test method, performed under scuffing conditions was used for testing EP properties of MTFs of GL-1 to GL-5(LS) performance levels. The test makes it possible to discriminate between API performance levels in a "qualitative" way - by the friction torque analysis. For interpretation of the results, scuffing models in different phases were developed on the basis of tribological tests and surface microanalyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Michalak M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Kalbarczyk M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Radom Technical University
5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013 | Year: 2014

Based on the performed research, it was stated that thin, hard, PVD coatings, deposited on heavily loaded steel machine elements influence surface fatigue life in a significant and diverse manner. The detailed research on the relationship between hardness and pitting resistance, concerning the coated elements, made it possible to point out a crucial underrated issue. There is a much higher gradient of fatigue life with the change of hardness, when considering steel-steel and steel-coating friction joints. It was established that, apart from the coating material and thickness, the essential factors influencing the fatigue resistance of elements with PVD coatings are the mechanical properties of the base material-coating layout. The influence of hardness on the initiation of pitting was also presented. This research proved that there is a need for maintaining the level of hardness of coated materials in a very narrow range, which implies the necessity of using tight technological regimes of surface preparation and coating deposition. © Shell International Petroleum Company 2013.


Osuch-Slomka E.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Ruta R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Slomka Z.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology | Year: 2015

The article presents an original use of experimental methods for the identification of the regression function in the form of a surface response to the optimization of parameters of ball-cratering method. This article suggests a methodology to determine the parameters' values (load, speed of rotation, minimum and maximum distance) for the ball-cratering method developed for determining the abrasive wear coefficient Kc evaluating resistance of the tested coating to abrasion. The paper presents an experimental identification system, developed according to the central composition plan enabling the identification of the regression function in the form of a quadratic form. The objects of identification were the functions of the maximum relative error for diameters of craters' wear and the thickness of the wear ring, based on the values of the ball-cratering method. Analysis of the results of identification experiments were shown. Moreover, the construction and evaluation of the regression function and the use of the utility function to optimize parameters of the ball-cratering method were described. The verification of the developed methodology was performed based on the example of the selection of parameters for the ball-cratering method for a coating with high resistance to heat (AlTiCrN) which was deposited with the use of the physical vapor deposition method. To verify the obtained optimal parameter values in relation to the selected anti-wear coating, wear tests were performed according to the set parameters and were subjected to empirical verification confirming the obtained results. Application of response surface optimization method allows for the adaptation of the method to evaluate various types of coatings. Shortening the testing time is a significant achievement for the researchers. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.


Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Kalbarczyk M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

An improvement in the scuffing resistance of toothed gears is achievable by e.g. the deposition of thin, hard coatings onto the gear teeth. However, the testing of the scuffing resistance of coated gears requires the application of specialised test methods. This paper presents a new test method, designed by the authors, called "gear scuffing shock test for coatings". This method is based on the test method denoted as FZG S-A10/16,6R/110 developed at the Technical University of Munich. Because the FZG test method is dedicated exclusively to lubricating oils, its application for testing coated gears required introducing significant modifications. The developed method has been verified during the testing of the scuffing resistance of gears coated with the low-friction a-C:H:W coating and composite low-friction MoS2/Ti coating. Various material combinations were tested: coating-coating (both gears coated), coating-steel, steel-coating, and for reference steel-steel (both gears uncoated). Mineral, automotive gear oil of API GL-5 performance level, and SAE 80W-90-viscosity grade was used for lubrication. It has been shown that this test method can be successfully applicable to test the scuffing resistance of coated gears-it has a resolution good enough to differentiate between the tested material combinations. © 2012 Politechnika WrocŁawska.


Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Osuch-Slomka E.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | And 2 more authors.
Lubrication Science | Year: 2014

White and natural base oils are assessed as candidates for the formulation of ecological gear oils. They are compared to 'classical' mineral and polyalphaolefins-based oils in scuffing four-ball and gear tests. Four fully formulated gear oils were prepared by blending each base oil with the package of extreme pressure (EP) additives, an anti-foam additive and an anti-oxidant. It is shown that the resistance to scuffing of the white oil is comparable to the classical oils, but the natural (rapeseed) oil reduces resistance to scuffing, because the used EP additives may not be suited to the rapeseed 'matrix' producing adverse effects. Thus, rapeseed-based gear oils can be used only for the lubrication of gears working under moderate load conditions. It is also indicated that, when comparing the mechanisms of tribochemical action of the EP additives in the four-ball tribosystem and meshing teeth, care should be taken, because the conditions in the contact zones are different. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Kalbarczyk M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2014

One of the main problems with the operation of spiral bevel gears is related to very severe conditions in the contact of the meshing teeth; therefore, lubrication is very difficult, which increases the risk of scuffing occurrence. One of the ways to achieve better scuffing resistance is by the deposition of a low-friction coating on the bevel gears teeth. Gear scuffing tests were performed using a bevel gear test rig designed and manufactured at ITeEPIB. The authorial bevel gear scuffing test was performed. Specially designed, spiral bevel gears were used for testing. Two material combinations were tested: uncoated pinion - coated wheel and, for reference, both gears without coatings. The a-C:H:W (trade name WC/C) coating of DLC type was deposited on the wheel teeth. A mineral, automotive gear oil of API GL-5 performance level was used for lubrication. It is shown that the resistance to scuffing may be significantly improved when the a-C:H:W coating is deposited on the spiral bevel gear teeth. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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