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Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Tribology International | Year: 2013

To prove that a candidate MTF meets the requirements of a given API performance level, one needs to perform extremely expensive and time-consuming tribological tests on entire lorry units. A new, quick and inexpensive four-ball test method, performed under scuffing conditions was used for testing EP properties of MTFs of GL-1 to GL-5(LS) performance levels. The test makes it possible to discriminate between API performance levels in a "qualitative" way - by the friction torque analysis. For interpretation of the results, scuffing models in different phases were developed on the basis of tribological tests and surface microanalyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Antonov M.,Tallinn University of Technology
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to investigate the resistance to rolling contact fatigue of a-C:H:W and MoS2/Ti coated gears. The investigation of rolling contact fatigue was realised by means of a gear test rig using FZG PT C/10/90 pitting test. Four material combinations of gears were tested: wheel and pinion uncoated, wheel and pinion coated, wheel coated and pinion uncoated as well as wheel uncoated and pinion coated. The tests were performed using for lubrication mineral gear oil of API GL-5 performance level and 80W/90 viscosity grade. The results indicate that for the coated/coated pair (wheel and pinion coated) and uncoated/coated pair (uncoated wheel and coated pinion) a significant decrease in the fatigue life compared to the uncoated gears was obtained. The best results were obtained in the case of the coated/uncoated pair (a-C:H:W coated wheel and uncoated pinion) - even fourfold increase in the fatigue life was observed. This shows a very high potential of application of PVD coatings for gears. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications.


Michalak M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Kalbarczyk M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Radom Technical University
5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013 | Year: 2014

Based on the performed research, it was stated that thin, hard, PVD coatings, deposited on heavily loaded steel machine elements influence surface fatigue life in a significant and diverse manner. The detailed research on the relationship between hardness and pitting resistance, concerning the coated elements, made it possible to point out a crucial underrated issue. There is a much higher gradient of fatigue life with the change of hardness, when considering steel-steel and steel-coating friction joints. It was established that, apart from the coating material and thickness, the essential factors influencing the fatigue resistance of elements with PVD coatings are the mechanical properties of the base material-coating layout. The influence of hardness on the initiation of pitting was also presented. This research proved that there is a need for maintaining the level of hardness of coated materials in a very narrow range, which implies the necessity of using tight technological regimes of surface preparation and coating deposition. © Shell International Petroleum Company 2013.


Michalak M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Osuch-Slomka E.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Maldonado-Cortes D.,University of Monterrey | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

The aim of the paper was to investigate the temperature effect on the wear mechanism of AlCrN coated components. The coating was deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition process (PVD) on WC/Co substrate. Tribological tests were performed in sliding conditions using a high temperature T-21 tribotester, produced by ITeE-PIB, Radom. The tests were performed in a ball-ondisc configuration (Si3N4 ceramic ball) under dry friction conditions at room temperature, 600 °C and 750 °C. An optical microscope, interferometer, and scanning electron microscope were used to analyse the worn surfaces. Following this study, it was found that the wear resistance of the coating AlCrN tribosystem depended on the temperature. The most wear was reported at room temperature. At 600 °C, the intensity of wear of the coating was 4-fold lower, and at 750 °C, wear was 6-fold lower than at room temperature. High temperature wear resistance of AlCrN coating involves creating a protective oxide layer. Performed analysis of the structure of the surface layer showed a much higher content of oxygen in wear scar than outside. At high temperatures, friction additionally intensified the oxidation process, thus the amount of oxygen in surface layer increased with temperature. Oxide layer, Al2O3 and Cr2O3 probably created at high temperature was a barrier to further oxidation of the coating and had very high wear resistance at high temperatures. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Trzos M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Szczerek M.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB | Tuszynski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute ITeE PIB
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

The paper presents the results of research aimed at differentiation between the API GL performance levels of automotive gear oils. Tribological tests were conducted with the use of two different tribotesters. A four-ball apparatus and a crossed-cylinder wear tester were employed. Several dozen oils were tested, and various standardised measurements of their lubricating properties have been determined. Then, the measurements of the tribological properties were related to the particular API GL performance levels and the results obtained in the two tribotesters were compared.The most known measurements, which characterise the antiwear and extreme-pressure properties of lubricants, were determined with the use of the four-ball apparatus. Using the crossed-cylinder wear tester, the load-carrying capacity of the oil has been assessed through the Brugger test.The statistical analysis of the research results has shown the possibility of the differentiation between the API GL performance levels of automotive gear oils on the basis of the Brugger test. The Brugger test is characterised by relatively low time-consumption, and the crossed-cylinder wear tester is relatively inexpensive, thus this approach may give significant benefits to the laboratory testing automotive gear oils. © 2012 Politechnika WrocŁawska.

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