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Smolik J.A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | Year: 2012

Hot working dies are influenced by three main factors causing their destruction: the cyclically changeable mechanical loads, intensive thermal shocks, as well as intensive friction, and erosion. Modification of surface properties with the use of hybrid plasma methods seems to be an effective way of improving its durability. The best known and widely used surface treatment hybrid technology is a combination of the nitriding process with the deposition of hard antiwear coatings by means of PVD methods. The designed composite layer "nitrided layer / Cr-CrN" was obtained with the use of the hybrid technology, which consist of ion nitriding followed by arc-evaporation coating deposition. The maintenance testing was performed on the forging dies employed for production of various parts in the automotive industry. The best durability was obtained for the dies used for the forging of rolling bearing tracks. In comparison with the durability of the dies subjected solely to the gas nitriding, nearly an increase of 600% in the durability was noticed. Source


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2013

The paper presents problems connected with the preparation of technical objects, including bearing rollers, for the process of the in-process, on-line automatic optical inspection. The objective was to develop an industrial solution ensuring automatic removal of pollutants from the technological process, located on the controlled surface of the object examined. The developed method allows for effective removal of both liquid and solid pollutants from the surface of the roller originating from the technological process. The removal is conducted in such a way that the quality control of the tested object is possible on the basis of the digital image obtained automatically at the test stand. The control process is limited by the efficiency of the cleaning process. The critical parameter is the achievement of expected effectiveness. The basic assumption was to adjust the efficiency of the control process to the efficiency of the production line (3 items/s). The essence of the presented solution is cleaning of the heads of bearing rollers in an automated, non contact manner with total elimination of the handwork. Therefore, the method meets the requirements of the automated process of cleaning of bearing rollers' heads right before the process of automated optical inspection of an object. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

The article presents impact tests carried out for the elements of a tailplane. The author describes the experiments in which a head-on and an off-centre collision of a bird-imitating object with the leading edge of the tailplane were recreated. The tests were performed with the use of an impact system with a projectile thrower in form of a 250. mm pneumatic gun. Objects made of gelatine and imitating birds were used in the tests. The collision was recorded by two high-speed cameras positioned at different angles to the axis of movement of a thrown projectile. The article presents the test system, test procedures and the results of the experiments available in form of a recorded image of the collision. Additionally, the effects the head-on and off-centre collisions have on the tested aircraft structures are shown. © 2013 Politechnika Wroclawska. Source


Mezyk J.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2016

The issue of temperature control in the research devices is well known and well described in the literature. Yet in the practical applications, in every-day engineering practice there are situations where theoretical knowledge is not applicable in a straight forward manner and the proper settings of the controller parameters constitutes a problem to be addressed and solved with and individual approach. This article presents an example of commissioning of a heated test chamber that is a part of a research apparatus for testing the erosive wear of materials, developed and built at the Institute for Sustainable Technologies – National Research Institute in Radom. The test apparatus is used for eroding the surface of the tested sample with a stream of a mixture of air and an abrasive medium. The test can be performed in room temperature and in raised temperature, both for the ambient of the sample as well as for the air used to make a mixture. The maximal temperature allowed in the machine is 600°C, so the test chamber is equipped with a hermetic door and heat insulation. The construction of the chamber makes it very inertial in terms of heating and cooling, which makes the temperature control a bit challenging. The system is controlled with a PLC with software PID controller implemented in Temperature Controller library. The use of standard set-up of PID parameters resulted in heating with significant overshoot and long settling time which was unacceptable. Trials to tune the parameters with use of built-in algorithm resulted in slower heating and still didn’t eliminate the overshoot. The literature research and tests were performed to identify the problem and to implement simple solution. The article presents the selected results of the literature research and details on the performed tests. The algorithm of the final solution is presented and the characteristics of the heating process after the modification of the control algorithm. The final solution of the issue is an algorithm that uses the standard available temperature controller and the temperature monitor to influence the actions of the controller. The difficulties in identification of the control object (the chamber) caused the inability to solve the problem analytically, but the practical and empirical approach and several trials and errors allowed for the almost optimal control characteristics, which allows no overshoot and as fast as possible heating of the object. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Mezyk J.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2016

For years now, the industrial manipulators have substituted human in many types of works during the manufacturing process. With robots the production rate increases, as does the quality of the product. The application of industrial manipulators increases the safety in the factories which in turn leads to savings. However, there are several difficulties in introduction of robotics into the production line. One of them is usually large cost of purchase and implementation of the robot. The proposed concept of the intelligent system for tool exchange is to address the stated issue. The aim of the system is to provide a mechanism for quick tool exchange supported by a decision making module that will constitute the self-reconfigurable industrial manipulator that is able to assess the situation at the production line, recognize the product and make decision on the operations to be performed, their sequence and which tool to use to perform that operation. Such a system of manipulator equipped with functions for reconfiguration and adaptation will be a solution for all applications where the production assortment changes quickly and is made in short series, and in particular for SMEs, which cannot afford purchase of several robots. They would buy one instead and let it perform variable tasks. The article briefly presents the concept of the hardware part of the exchange system, which includes both construction and the electronic modules for the tools, and concentrates on the concept of software expert system and database that allows intelligent decision making. The software control of the system is divided into four levels: the basic level, technical level, task level and procedure level. The basic level defines the movement of the robot such as: positioning, rotation, approach to the position etc. This level uses to control system of the applied manipulator and the data contained in the electronic modules of the tools. The basic level reflects the typical low-level control of the manipulator. The technical level defines the technical movement of the robot, small procedures related to the calibration of the tools, operation with the tool magazine (picking up and putting away) and related to tool maintenance – locking, unlocking, power supply, air supply and similar. The task level defines the operations related to the task performed on the object. Depending on the defined task the proper tool is selected (e.g. gripper, camera or a laser scanner) and, based on the data collected from sensors, performs the operation (e.g. scans the surface of the object). The highest level of control is totally independent on the hardware control system of the manipulator and the hardware of the robotic stand. Using the available databases and the recognition systems (e.g. cameras) makes decisions on what type of object appears on the production line and what operation is to be performed. The operations are defined as metacode that is interpreted and performed by lower control levels structurally bound to the control system of the manipulator. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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