Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute

Radom, Poland

Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute

Radom, Poland
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Niemczewska-Wojcik M.,Cracow University of Technology | Mankowska-Snopczynska A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Piekoszewski W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

This article concerns the analysis and evaluation of surfaces previously subjected to tribological research (wear tracks and wear amount), with regard to technological factors and cooperation conditions. The surfaces of discs were the subject of this research made of bearing steel without coating (100Cr6), with antiwear coating (CrN), and with low-wear coating (MoS2). The surfaces were measured before and after tribological studies. The tribological tests were performed on the tribotester T-26 (ball-on-disc contact arrangement) consisting of a bearing steel ball (100Cr6) in contact with a disc. The studies were carried out in a vacuum and in the air. The study of technological surface layer (TWW) and service-generated surface layer (EWW) was made with the use of an atomic force microscope and an interferometer microscope. The obtained results (wear quantity and wear tracks) were analyzed using specialized metrology software. The results obtained with the use of the interferometric microscopy were compared to those obtained by the atomic force microscopy, which enabled comprehensive assessment of the surfaces with respect to material loss (wear). © 2013 Politechnika WrocŁawska.


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Jozwik W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2015

The article presents the influence of the distance between a measuring head and a tested object on the results of eddy current defectoscopy test. The tests were conducted on the two inner rings of a tapered roller bearing where the test defects were performed. A one-millimetre hole corresponded to the surface defect. Internal blind holes in the shape of a rectangle corresponded to a subsurface defect. The research was performed with the use of a SSEC III PC defectoscope connected to a mobile PC. The measuring device is part of the system for the automatic quality control of bearing rings. The test was conducted for a slit having following dimensions: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm. The obtained characteristics are the composition of the pulse caused by the detected defect and the sine wave caused by the axial runout of the tested bearing ring. The correlation between the slit size and the value of the signal of the defect and the sine wave caused by axial runout of the tested ring was observed. The concept of “a coefficient of defect detection” was introduced. The described coefficient is a quotient of the value of the defect signal and the peak-to-peak value of the sine wave caused by axial runout of the tested bearing ring. The increase in the dimensions of the slit from 0.1 to 0.5 mm causes a 35 - 50% decrease in the coefficient of defect detection, depending on the test defect. A handle was designed to ensure a constant pressure of measuring head on the tested surface was proposed. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Smolik J.A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | Year: 2012

Hot working dies are influenced by three main factors causing their destruction: the cyclically changeable mechanical loads, intensive thermal shocks, as well as intensive friction, and erosion. Modification of surface properties with the use of hybrid plasma methods seems to be an effective way of improving its durability. The best known and widely used surface treatment hybrid technology is a combination of the nitriding process with the deposition of hard antiwear coatings by means of PVD methods. The designed composite layer "nitrided layer / Cr-CrN" was obtained with the use of the hybrid technology, which consist of ion nitriding followed by arc-evaporation coating deposition. The maintenance testing was performed on the forging dies employed for production of various parts in the automotive industry. The best durability was obtained for the dies used for the forging of rolling bearing tracks. In comparison with the durability of the dies subjected solely to the gas nitriding, nearly an increase of 600% in the durability was noticed.


Giesko T.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Garbacz P.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2013

The paper presents the possibilities of a hybrid vision method based on simultaneous analysis of infrared and vision images for surface inspection of hot aluminium in a manufacturing process. The system consists of a NIR/SWIR camera and a high resolution visual camera, and a computer based image analysis system. The simultaneous analysis of infrared and vision images will enable surface inspection for detecting defects in temperature range from 200oC to 600oC. Thermal images present temperature distribution on the surface, and contain information about the manufacturing process. The analysis of thermograms enables to find areas of temperature irregularity caused by increased friction loads, as well as areas of inhomogeneous emissivity caused by surface defects. Furthermore, information captured by the vision camera is used to detect surface defects. The software developed enables the overlaying of images. The proposed simultaneous thermovision and vision imaging can be applied in industry for in-line monitoring of aluminium extrusion processes. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Bujak J.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Michalczewski R.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology | Year: 2011

The aim of the article was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-voltage bias on phase composition, surface morphology, mechanical properties, and the tribological performance of the multilayered Cr/CrN/DLC coatings prepared by the filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) process. The coatings were deposited using a laboratory arc source device equipped with two macroparticle filtering systems. All coatings were deposited at substrate temperatures below 200°C. Cr/CrN/DLC multilayered coatings were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a glow discharge optical emission spectrometry technique, scratch testing, nano-indentation measurements (nano-hardness and Young's modulus), and optical microscopy. Tribological tests employing a ball-on-disc tribosystem were performed in dry friction conditions in an airconditioned room (RH 50 per cent, 23°C). The results proved that the substrate bias voltage exerts a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the Cr/CrN/DLC multilayered coatings by the changing chemical composition of the DLC top layers. With an increase of bias voltage from 2 to 6 kV, the Cr content increases from 2 to 4 per cent and the sp2/sp3 ratio decreases from 1.06 to 0.44. The Cr-doped DLC multilayered coatings were characterized by a very smooth surface, a low friction coefficient (0.13-0.15), moderate hardness (8-11 GPa), and a Young's modulus of 95-130 GPa. Due to the moderate adhesion strength of DLC top layers, their wear resistance was not satisfactory for real applications. In each tribological test, the delaminating process of the DLC layers was observed after approximately 200-300 load cycles. To improve the mechanical properties and adhesion of a DLC layer, the optimization of the transition and DLC layers is achieved by changing the parameters of the physical vapour deposition process.


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Jozwik W.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2015

The article presents the process of determining the speed of an unmanned rescue vehicle. The conducted investigations involved a measurement system developed for testing dynamic lorries. The application of a test system for low-speed all-terrain vehicles was possible due to a wide measurement range of sensors. Speed was tested employing two following methods: - an indirect method consisting of the measurement of the instantaneous rotational speed of the wheel; - a direct method consisting of the measurement of speed against the ground, taken with an optical speed sensor. The authors also describe the sources of interferences characteristic of both methods that include: - the wheelspin affecting the correctness of speed determination in the indirect measurement; - the unevenness of the surface (ground) hindering the correct operation of the optical speed sensor. The paper also presents the characteristics of the rotational speed of the wheels obtained in road and off-road conditions. Based on the obtained signals, linear speed was determined. Additionally, the article discusses methods for eliminating measurement disturbances. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute | Majcher A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2015

The use of documents with RFID labels, particularly passports, is often equivalent to mechanical damage, the loss of printed data and many negative consequences stemming from them. The article presents a system for testing the mechanical durability of load damage considering such types of documents. Based on the results of the analyzed requirements, a set of testing devices has been developed in order to enable a complex assessment of the mechanical durability of electronically protected documents. The use of common solutions regarding individual testers enables the execution of both normative and programmable tests and facilitates an easy extension of the system for the modification of its individual devices. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zbrowski A.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

The article presents impact tests carried out for the elements of a tailplane. The author describes the experiments in which a head-on and an off-centre collision of a bird-imitating object with the leading edge of the tailplane were recreated. The tests were performed with the use of an impact system with a projectile thrower in form of a 250. mm pneumatic gun. Objects made of gelatine and imitating birds were used in the tests. The collision was recorded by two high-speed cameras positioned at different angles to the axis of movement of a thrown projectile. The article presents the test system, test procedures and the results of the experiments available in form of a recorded image of the collision. Additionally, the effects the head-on and off-centre collisions have on the tested aircraft structures are shown. © 2013 Politechnika Wroclawska.


Mezyk J.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2016

For years now, the industrial manipulators have substituted human in many types of works during the manufacturing process. With robots the production rate increases, as does the quality of the product. The application of industrial manipulators increases the safety in the factories which in turn leads to savings. However, there are several difficulties in introduction of robotics into the production line. One of them is usually large cost of purchase and implementation of the robot. The proposed concept of the intelligent system for tool exchange is to address the stated issue. The aim of the system is to provide a mechanism for quick tool exchange supported by a decision making module that will constitute the self-reconfigurable industrial manipulator that is able to assess the situation at the production line, recognize the product and make decision on the operations to be performed, their sequence and which tool to use to perform that operation. Such a system of manipulator equipped with functions for reconfiguration and adaptation will be a solution for all applications where the production assortment changes quickly and is made in short series, and in particular for SMEs, which cannot afford purchase of several robots. They would buy one instead and let it perform variable tasks. The article briefly presents the concept of the hardware part of the exchange system, which includes both construction and the electronic modules for the tools, and concentrates on the concept of software expert system and database that allows intelligent decision making. The software control of the system is divided into four levels: the basic level, technical level, task level and procedure level. The basic level defines the movement of the robot such as: positioning, rotation, approach to the position etc. This level uses to control system of the applied manipulator and the data contained in the electronic modules of the tools. The basic level reflects the typical low-level control of the manipulator. The technical level defines the technical movement of the robot, small procedures related to the calibration of the tools, operation with the tool magazine (picking up and putting away) and related to tool maintenance – locking, unlocking, power supply, air supply and similar. The task level defines the operations related to the task performed on the object. Depending on the defined task the proper tool is selected (e.g. gripper, camera or a laser scanner) and, based on the data collected from sensors, performs the operation (e.g. scans the surface of the object). The highest level of control is totally independent on the hardware control system of the manipulator and the hardware of the robotic stand. Using the available databases and the recognition systems (e.g. cameras) makes decisions on what type of object appears on the production line and what operation is to be performed. The operations are defined as metacode that is interpreted and performed by lower control levels structurally bound to the control system of the manipulator. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Mezyk J.,Institute for Sustainable Technologies National Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2016

The issue of temperature control in the research devices is well known and well described in the literature. Yet in the practical applications, in every-day engineering practice there are situations where theoretical knowledge is not applicable in a straight forward manner and the proper settings of the controller parameters constitutes a problem to be addressed and solved with and individual approach. This article presents an example of commissioning of a heated test chamber that is a part of a research apparatus for testing the erosive wear of materials, developed and built at the Institute for Sustainable Technologies – National Research Institute in Radom. The test apparatus is used for eroding the surface of the tested sample with a stream of a mixture of air and an abrasive medium. The test can be performed in room temperature and in raised temperature, both for the ambient of the sample as well as for the air used to make a mixture. The maximal temperature allowed in the machine is 600°C, so the test chamber is equipped with a hermetic door and heat insulation. The construction of the chamber makes it very inertial in terms of heating and cooling, which makes the temperature control a bit challenging. The system is controlled with a PLC with software PID controller implemented in Temperature Controller library. The use of standard set-up of PID parameters resulted in heating with significant overshoot and long settling time which was unacceptable. Trials to tune the parameters with use of built-in algorithm resulted in slower heating and still didn’t eliminate the overshoot. The literature research and tests were performed to identify the problem and to implement simple solution. The article presents the selected results of the literature research and details on the performed tests. The algorithm of the final solution is presented and the characteristics of the heating process after the modification of the control algorithm. The final solution of the issue is an algorithm that uses the standard available temperature controller and the temperature monitor to influence the actions of the controller. The difficulties in identification of the control object (the chamber) caused the inability to solve the problem analytically, but the practical and empirical approach and several trials and errors allowed for the almost optimal control characteristics, which allows no overshoot and as fast as possible heating of the object. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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