Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT

AE, Netherlands

Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT

AE, Netherlands
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Huyskens C.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Huyskens C.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Helsen J.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Groot W.J.,Corbion Purac | And 2 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2015

The bio-based industry is striving to replace refined sugars by much cheaper secondary feedstocks for the production of bio-fuels and chemicals. However, due to their higher complexity, a number of technological challenges need to be overcome. One example are the high concentrations of sodium and potassium present in the biomass hydrolysates that inhibit fermentation and hence need to be reduced. Previous research demonstrated the technical feasibility of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) for biomass hydrolysate desalination as a chemical/waste free alternative compared to the commonly used ion-exchange process (IEX). In this paper, the economic viability of MCDI was investigated for a production capacity of 500 ton sugar day-1 and a target Na removal from 3 to 0.1 g kg-1 hydrolysate. Although capital costs were higher for MCDI than for IEX due to the expensive MCDI cells and power supplies, operating costs were lower because less water and chemicals are used and less wastewater is generated. Cost calculations for different initial feed concentrations indicated that IEX was only preferential over MCDI when the feed Na+ concentration was below 0.4 g kg-1 hydrolysate. Then the higher chemical, water and wastewater treatment costs for IEX no longer outweighed the higher cost of MCDI cells compared to IEX resins. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Huyskens C.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Huyskens C.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Helsen J.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Groot W.J.,Purac Biochem | De Haan A.B.,Purac Biochem
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2013

Biomass hydrolysates are rapidly gaining interest as low-cost non-food renewable feedstocks for fermentation processes. However, since high concentrations of salt such as sodium and potassium can act toxic to microorganisms, there is a need to remove these salts to maintain high biochemical productivity. In this study, the electrochemical treatment of biomass hydrolysates by membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) was considered as an auxiliary chemical free, lower cost alternative in comparison to the commonly used ion-exchange processes. Model experiments performed with a commercial bench-scale MCDI set-up and model solutions indicated that none of the most abundant hydrolysate components (sugars, organic acids and furans) prohibited the implementation of MCDI for this application, although performance was lowered by the competition for electro-sorption between the protons deriving from organic acid dissociation and the cations. Such an effect was not observed during MCDI treatment of a real biomass hydrolysate sample. Instead, the results achieved in terms of Na and K removal and energy usage were very comparable to the ones for a model solution with equal conductivity and sugar concentration. As such, this study clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of MCDI for process streams such as biomass hydrolysates, hereby considerably broadening its potential application field. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Huyskens C.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Huyskens C.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Helsen J.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | de Haan A.B.,Purac Biochem
Desalination | Year: 2013

In capacitive deionization (CDI) ions are removed from a salt solution by temporarily storing them on carbon electrodes by an electro-sorption process at low voltage. In this study, the key performance parameters of a bench-scale CDI system (with ion-exchange membranes positioned in front of the electrodes) were studied in a structured and statistically founded manner by applying factorial experiment design. Results showed that it is possible to operate CDI at high ion removal efficiency, high water recovery and/or low energy usage, depending on the settings. This tunability results in a broad potential application field for CDI technology. In addition, many significant main and interaction effects were elucidated. Among the most remarkable, were the respective negative and positive effects of cell voltage and flow rate on charge efficiency, which point at the occurrence of concentration polarization phenomena. Because the charge efficiency immediately determines the energy usage, it should be considered a key parameter for economical and sustainable CDI operation. CDI experiments performed with different salt solutions showed higher charge capacities for divalent compared to monovalent ions. In contrast to some literature reports, no clear effects of ion hydrated radius and mass were observed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jongmans M.T.G.,TU Eindhoven | Londono A.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Mamilla S.B.,TU Eindhoven | Pragt H.J.,Akzo Nobel | And 9 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2012

Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is produced via the chlorination of acetic acid, in which a part is overchlorinated to the undesired dichloroacetic acid (DCA). The separation of DCA from MCA by distillation is highly energy intensive, because of the rather low relative volatility of ∼1.05-1.3, depending on the mixture composition. Extractive distillation is a promising alternative and often applied to separate close boiling mixtures. The benchmark solvent sulfolane is known to increase the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA mixture only slightly. By applying basic complexing agents, the large difference in the acid dissociation constant between MCA (pK a = 2.87) and DCA (pK a = 1.25) can be exploited to further enhance the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA mixture. The aim of this study was to select a proper complexing agent. Such a complexing agent should not only enhance the relative volatility more than obtained with sulfolane, but also be stable in the presence of MCA and DCA, and the complexation should be reversible. To study on the relative volatility and the reversibility of complexation, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and thermal/chemical stability experiments were performed. Many extractants were found that improve the relative volatility more than sulfolane, with relative volatilities up to 5.9. There is, however, a clear trade-off between the effect of the extractant on the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA mixture and the regeneration ability of the extractant. Extractants with a strong effect on the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA mixture appeared difficult to regenerate. Complexation agents from the classes of ethers, ketones, and phosphine oxides, and the benchmark extractant sulfolane were the only extractants that demonstrated to be thermally/chemically stable in the strongly acidic environment. With regard to the relative volatility, the regeneration ability, and the stability of the extractants, it was concluded that glymes, e.g. diethylene glycol dipentyl ether are the most promising extractants, improving the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA system up to 2.1-2.4 at a DCA/extractant molar ratio of 1. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jongmans M.T.G.,TU Eindhoven | Londono A.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Schuur B.,University of Twente | de Haan A.B.,TU Eindhoven
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2012

In this study, binary and ternary VLE data have been determined at 5, 7.5, and 10. kPa for the system monochloracetic acid (MCA). +. dichloroacetic acid (DCA). +. diethylene glycol dipentyl ether (DGDP). The extractant DGDP enhances the relative volatility of the MCA/DCA system from 1.2 without extractant up to 4. The non-ideal behavior in the liquid and vapor phase was reasonably well correlated with the NRTL and Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) model, respectively. The binary and ternary VLE data were correlated separately to obtain a better description of both datasets. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Londono A.,Institute for Sustainable Process Technology ISPT | Jongmans M.T.G.,TU Eindhoven | Schuur B.,University of Twente | de Haan A.B.,TU Eindhoven
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2012

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary system monochloroacetic acid. +. dichloroacetic acid have been measured at 5, 7.5, and 10. kPa. The VLE data measured in this work is thermodynamically consistent according to the Herington area method. The non-ideal behavior in the vapor phase was correlated using the Hayden-O'Connell model. Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC were used to account for the liquid phase non-idealities. All activity coefficient models were able to describe the experimental VLE data very well. Wilson and UNIQUAC described the VLE data slightly better than NRTL. The correlated equilibrium temperatures and vapor phase compositions were in all cases in good agreement with the experimental data. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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