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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Wang X.-G.,University of California at Berkeley | Biondi A.,University of California at Berkeley | Biondi A.,University of Catania | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipt.: Drosophilidae), a native of East Asia, has widely established in North America and Europe, where it is a serious pest of small and stone fruit crops. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the recently colonized regions prompted the first foreign exploration for co-evolved parasitoids in South Korea during 2013 and 2014. We collected the larval parasitoids Asobara japonica Belokobylskij, A. leveri (Nixon) and A.brevicauda Guerrieri & van Achterberg (Hym.: Braconidae), Ganaspisbrasiliensis (Ihering), Leptopilina japonica japonica Novković & Kimura and L. j. formosana Novković & Kimura (Hym.: Figitidae); and the pupal parasitoids Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hym.: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae Perkins (Hym.: Diapriidae). From UC Berkeley quarantine records, percentage parasitism ranged from 0 to 17.1 % and varied by geography, season, and collection methods. Asobara japonica was the most common parasitoid species. Higher numbers of parasitoids were reared from field-picked fruit as opposed to traps baited with uninfested fruit. Quarantine bioassays confirmed that A. japonica, G. brasiliensis, L. j. japonica, P. vindemiae, and T. drosophilae developed from D. suzukii. Female individuals of the endoparasitoid, A. japonica, were larger when reared on the larger D. suzukii larvae compared with those reared on the smaller larvae of D. melanogaster Meigen. Larger parasitoid size was associated with longer developmental time. Several of the South Korean parasitoid species have the potential for use in classical biological control and may contribute to the suppression of D. suzukii in the newly invaded regions. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Pepori A.L.,Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection | Kolarik M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Kolarik M.,Charles University | Bettini P.P.,University of Florence | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2015

Species of the genus Geosmithia are associated with insect species, mainly bark beetles. On Ulmus spp., the same beetles are also vectors of Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., the agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), a worldwide elm disease. Aim of this paper is to characterise Geosmithia species associated with elms and/or elm beetles in Europe. Seventy-two strains representative of all morphological taxonomic units were used to build a phylogenetic tree based on ITS, β-tubulin and elongation factor 1-α gene regions. On the basis of molecular and morpho-physiological traits, seven taxonomic entities were identified. In addition to the species previously known our results assigned strains previously identified as Geosmithia pallida to two separate taxa: Geosmithia sp. 2 and Geosmithia sp. 5. Two new species, Geosmithia omnicola and Geosmithia ulmacea, are described. Two strains were assigned to the partially described species Geosmithia sp. 20. Geosmithia species living on Ulmus do not discriminate between elm species, but between different environments. The association between Ulmus and Geosmithia is common, stable, and seems to be related to specific vectors. The relationship between Geosmithia and Ophiostoma would deserve further investigation, as these fungi share the same vectors and habitat for a significant part of their life cycles. © 2015 The British Mycological Society.

Pirovano W.,BaseClear B.v. | Miozzi L.,Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection | Boetzer M.,BaseClear B.v. | Pantaleo V.,Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Over the past years deep sequencing experiments have opened novel doors to reconstruct viral populations in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Currently a substantial number of studies have been performed which employ Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques to either analyse known viruses by means of a referenceguided approach or to discover novel viruses using a de novo-based strategy. Taking advantage of the well-known Cymbidium ringspot virus we have carried out a comparison of different bioinformatics tools to reconstruct the viral genome based on 21-27 nt short (s)RNA sequencing with the aim to identify the most efficient pipeline. The same approach was applied to a population of plants constituting an ancient variety of Cicer arietinum with red seeds. Among the discovered viruses, we describe the presence of a Tobamovirus referring to the Tomato mottle mosaic virus (NC_022230), which was not yet observed on C. arietinum nor revealed in Europe and a viroid referring to Hop stunt viroid (NC_001351.1) never reported in chickpea. Notably, a reference sequence guided approach appeared the most efficient in such kind of investigation. Instead, the de novo assembly reached a nonappreciable coverage although the most prominent viral species could still be identified. Advantages and limitations of viral metagenomics analysis using sRNAs are discussed. © 2014 Pirovano, Boetzer, Miozzi and Pantaleo.

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