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Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Ardjmand A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2013

Backgrounds: The amnesic effect of morphine is well known in the laboratory animals. But, it is unclear that morphine at what times can exactly affect different phases of memory, including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. Therefore, we investigated the time profile of morphine's amnesic effect on passive (inhibitory) avoidance learning and memory in male Wistar rats. Methods: In order to evaluate the outcomes of pre- and post-training administrations of morphine, the animals were trained in a stepthrough type of passive avoidance task at various time points, and were tested 24 h after training to measure memory retrieval. Results: The results showed that acquisition of memory was impaired in the animals that received a dose of 7.5 mg/kg of morphine (Intraperitoneally) at 0, 30 min, and 1 h before training, as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day. Post-training administrations of morphine at 30 min and 1h, 4h except for the time immediately after training, did not impair memory consolidation. The results also showed that pre-test administrations of morphine at 0 and 30 min before the test, impaired retrieval of inhibitory avoidance memory. Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that morphine, when injected at different time points before training, after training, or before testing affects different phases of inhibitory avoidance memory. With regard to the time of injections related to each phase, other experiments can be designed to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the impairing effect of morphine in each phase.


Pakpoura B.,Islamic Azad University | Ahmadig S.,University of Kurdistan | Oryana S.,Islamic Azad University | Zarrindasta M.R.,Islamic Azad University | And 3 more authors.
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2010

The possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in amnesia induced by scopolamine was investigated. An inhibitory (passive) avoidance task was used for memory assessment in male Wistar rats. The results revealed that intra-NAc administration of a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist, scopolamine (1 and 2 μg/rat) impaired memory consolidation in the animals when tested 24 h later. Post-training intra-NAc administration of NMDA (0.005 and 0.01 μg/rat) also impaired memory consolidation, whereas post-training intra-NAc administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg/rat) did not. Intra-NAc co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with ineffective doses of scopolamine (0.25 and 0.5 μg/rat) after training had no significant effect on memory consolidation, but intra-NAc injections of effective doses of NMDA (0.005 and 0.01 μg/rat) prevented the amnesic effect of an effective dose of scopolamine (2 μg/rat). In contrast, intra-NAc co-administration of MK-801 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg/rat) along with an effective dose of scopolamine (2 μg/rat) did not prevent the effect of the latter drug. It can be concluded that NMDA receptors in the NAc are involved in the modulation of memory consolidation that was affected by scopolamine. Behavioural Pharmacology. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Rezayat M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Niasari H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | Parsaei L.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2010

We have previously shown lithium-induced state-dependent learning in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agents on the lithium-induced state-dependent learning have been investigated. A single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used to assess memory in male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. The results showed that post-training lithium (10 mg/kg) decreased the step-down latency on the test day, which was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the drug; indicating state-dependent learning induced by lithium. Pre-test administration of NMDA (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μ/4g/mouse, intracerebroventricular) could also substitute for pre-test lithium to reverse the decrease of the step-down latency induced by post-training lithium. Furthermore, pre-test co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA (0.00001 μ/4g/mouse, intracerebroventricular.) with lower doses of lithium (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally.) synergistically reversed the decrease of the step-down latency. On the contrary, pre-test injections of NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 μ/4g/mouse, intracerebroventricular.) disrupted state-dependent learning induced by lithium. The results suggest that NMDA receptors may be involved, at least partly, in the lithium-induced state-dependent learning. © 2010 British Association for Psychopharmacology.


Azizbeigi R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | Babapour V.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rezayof A.,University of Tehran | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2011

Involvement of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) with interaction between morphine and nicotine on inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory was investigated. A step-through type of inhibitory avoidance tasks was used to assess memory in male Wistar rats. The results showed that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of morphine (7.5 mg/kg) after training decreased retrieval of IA memory in the animals when tested 24 h later. Pre-test administration of the same dose of morphine significantly reversed the deficiency in retrieval. The results also showed that pre-test administration of nicotine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) by itself mimicked the effect of pre-test morphine, and lower doses of nicotine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg) also improved the effect of a low dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) on retrieval of IA memory. Pre-test intra-NAc administration of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.001 and 0.01 μg/rat), and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) caused no significant effects on IA memory by themselves, but both prevented reinstatement of the retrieval of IA memory by the effective dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg). It can be concluded that the dopaminergic mechanism(s) in the NAc is a crosslink for the effect of morphine and nicotine on reinstatement of retrieval of IA memory impaired by post-training administration of morphine. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Mahboobi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2011

In the present study the influence of the dopaminergic system(s) of the amygdala on the anxiolytic-like effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA), in male Wistar rats was investigated. An elevated plus-maze test of anxiety was used to assess anxiety-like behaviors. The results showed that bilateral intra-amygdala injections of ACPA (0.125, 1.25 and 5 ng/rat) and the mixed dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist, apomorphine, at different doses (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat) increased percentage open arm time (%OAT) and percentage open arm entries (%OAE), indicating an anxiolytic-like effect for both of the drugs. In contrast, intra-amygdala administration of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (2 and 3 μg/rat) decreased %OAT and %OAE, suggesting an anxiogenic-like effect for both of the drugs. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-effective dose of apomorphine (0.0005 μg/rat) increased, while SCH23390 (0.25 μg/rat) and sulpiride (1.5 μg/rat) decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of ACPA. It can be concluded that the dopaminergic system of the amygdala may be involved, at least partly, in the anxiolytic-like effects induced by ACPA in the rat amygdala. © 2011 The Author(s).


Mahmoodi G.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | pourmotabbed A.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Oryan S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 5 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2010

Interaction of cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) influencing a learned behavior is a topic of great interest. In the present study the effect of intra-VTA administration of a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist, scopolamine, and . N-methyl-. d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agents by themselves as well as their interactions on consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory have been investigated. A step-through inhibitory avoidance task was used for memory assessment in male Wistar rats. The results showed that intra-VTA administration of scopolamine (1 and 2μg/rat) and NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.75 and 1μg/rat) immediately after training, impaired consolidation of IA memory. Interestingly, co-administration of an ineffective dose of MK-801 (0.5μg/rat) with ineffective doses of scopolamine (0.25 and 0.5μg/rat) significantly decreased the consolidation process. Post-training intra-VTA injections of NMDA (0.001 and 0.01μg/rat) had no effects by itself, whereas its co-administration with scopolamine (2μg/rat) prevented the effect of the later drug. The results also showed that pre-test intra-VTA administration of scopolamine (3 and 4μg/rat) and MK-801 (1 and 2μg/rat) impaired retrieval of the IA memory. Moreover, co-administration of an ineffective dose of MK-801 (0.5μg/rat) with ineffective doses of scopolamine (1 and 2μg/rat) increasingly reduced the retrieval of the IA memory. On the contrary to its post-training treatment, pre-test administration of NMDA either alone or in combination with scopolamine caused no significant effect on retrieval of IA memory. It can be concluded that muscarinic acetylcholine and NMDA glutamate receptors in the VTA are involved in the mechanism(s) underlying consolidation and retrieval of the IA memory. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Khosravi R.,University of Tehran | Khosravi R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Sabouri H.,University of Tehran
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

Software product line engineering enables strategic reuse in development of families of related products. In a component-based approach to product line development, components capture functionalities appearing in one or more products in the family and different assemblies of components yield to various products or configurations. In this approach, an interaction model which effectively factors out the logic handling variability from the functionality of the system greatly enhances the reusability of components. We study the problem of variability modeling for a family of distributed systems expressed in actor model. We define a special type of actors called coordinators whose behavior is described as Reo circuits with the aim of encapsulating the variability logic. We have the benefits of Reo language for expressing coordination logic, while modeling the entire system as an actor-based distributed model. We have applied this model to a case study extracted from an industrial software family in the domain of interactive TV. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.


Arjomand M.,Sharif University of Technology | Arjomand M.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Boroumand A.,Sharif University of Technology | Boroumand A.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2014

As System-on-Chips (SoCs) grow in complexity and size, proposals of networks-on-chip (NoCs) as the on-chip communication infrastructure are justified by reusability, scalability, and energy efficiency provided by the interconnection networks. Simulation and mathematical analysis offer flexibility for the evaluations under various network configurations. However, the accuracy of such analyzing methods largely depends on the approximations made. On the other hand, prototyping can be used to improve the evaluation accuracy by bringing the design closer to reality. In this paper, we propose a FPGA prototype that is general enough to model different video-processing SoCs where different cores communicate via NoC. To model NoC, we accurately implement a fully-synthesized on-chip router supporting multiple virtual channels. For the processing nodes, on the other side, we propose a general and simple traffic generator capable of modeling different synthetic functions (i.e. Poisson and self-similar). Indeed, the application traffic is modeled using 1-D hybrid cellular automata which can effectively generate high quality pseudorandom patterns. Finally, for the energy efficiency, the proposed prototype is capable to support multiple frequency regions. To realize the voltage-frequency island partitioned SoC, we use the utilities that Xilinx FPGA platform offers to design Globally Synchronous Locally Asynchronous (GALS) systems via Delay-Locked Loop elements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | Malekmohammadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Repeated administration of certain drugs could result in an enhancement of the behavioral effects of those drugs. In the present study, the effect of repeated administration of histamine on amnesia induced by post-training administration of the drug was examined. Methods: A single trial step-down inhibitory (passive) avoidance task was used for memory assessment in male NMRI mice. Results: The results showed that post-training administration of different doses of histamine (5, 10, and 20 fjg/mouse, i.c.v.) decreased the step-down latency on the test day. Repeated pretreatment of histamine (10 and 20 fjg/mouse) for three days followed by five days of no drug treatment prevented amnesia due to post-training histamine (20 fjg/mouse). In contrast, repeated administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to histamine injections, decreased the effect of repeated histamine administration. Moreover, a similar pattern was seen in animals which received dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.025, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg) or dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to histamine injections during the repeated pretreatment.


Salimpour Y.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2010

A temporal point process is a stochastic time series of binary events that occurs in continuous time. In computational neuroscience, the point process is used to model neuronal spiking activity; however, estimating the model parameters from spike train is a challenging problem. The state space point process filtering theory is a new technique for the estimation of the states and parameters. In order to use the stochastic filtering theory for the states of neuronal system with the Gaussian assumption, we apply the extended Kalman filter. In this regard, the extended Kalman filtering equations are derived for the point process observation. We illustrate the new filtering algorithm by estimating the effect of visual stimulus on the spiking activity of object selective neurons from the inferior temporal cortex of macaque monkey. Based on the goodness-offit assessment, the extended Kalman filter provides more accurate state estimate than the conventional methods.

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