Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM

Tehrān, Iran

Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM

Tehrān, Iran
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Azizbeigi R.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2013

We designed this study to investigate effects of intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc) infusions of GABAA receptors agonist (muscimol) and antagonist (bicuculline) by themselves and their interaction with scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory performance. This study used a step-through IA task to assess memory in male Wistar rats. The results showed that post-training intra-NAc infusions of muscimol at doses of 0.01 and 0.02μg/rat significantly impaired IA memory performance, while bicuculline (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4μg/rat) had no effect. Post-training intra-NAc infusions of scopolamine at dose of 0.5μg/rat impaired IA memory performance by itself, and in combination with an ineffective dose of muscimol increased impairment of IA memory performance. The results also showed that post-training intra-NAc infusions of bicuculline prevented the impairing effect of higher doses of scopolamine on IA memory performance. Pre-test intra-NAc infusions of muscimol (0.01 and 0.02μg/rat) and bicuculline (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1μg/rat) impaired IA memory performance. The results also revealed that pre-test intra-NAc infusions of scopolamine (0.25 and 0.5μg/rat) impaired IA memory performance, and its co-infusions with an ineffective dose of muscimol (0.005μg/rat) increased impairment of IA memory performance. Interestingly, pre-test intra-NAc infusions of bicuculline impaired performance by itself, but did not prevent the impairing effect of scopolamine. It can be concluded that GABAA and muscarinic receptors of the NAc may have an interaction in modulation of IA memory performance, which may result from affecting output neurons in the NAc directly or indirectly via cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Ardjmand A.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | And 3 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2012

In the present study, we investigated the influence of intra-medial septum (intra-MS) injections of dopamine D1 receptor agents on amnesia induced by intra-CA1 injections of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, scopolamine. This study used a step-through inhibitory (passive) avoidance task to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. The results showed that in the animals that received post-training intra-MS injections of saline, intra-CA1 administrations of scopolamine (0.75, 1, and 2μg/rat) decreased inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory consolidation as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day, which was suggestive of drug-induced amnesia. Post-training intra-MS injections of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 at doses of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.3μg/rat had no effect, but at dose of 0.5μg/rat impaired IA memory consolidation. Interestingly, intra-MS injections of SKF38393 (0.15, 0.3 and 0.5μg/rat) significantly prevented amnesia induced by intra-CA1 injections of scopolamine (1μg/rat). Intra-MS injections of a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.75μg/rat) by itself impaired IA memory consolidation, and also at dose of 0.75μg/rat increased amnesia induced by intra-CA1 administrations of an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5μg/rat). Post-training intra-MS injections of ineffective doses of SCH23390 (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5μg/rat) prevented an effective dose of SKF38393 response to the impaired effect of scopolamine. These results suggest that dopamine D1 receptors in the MS via projection neurons to the hippocampus affect impairment of memory consolidation induced by intra-CA injections of scopolamine. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Mashayekhi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2013

This study was designed to investigate the involvement of β-adrenoceptors of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in ethanol-induced state-dependent retrieval. We used a step-down type of inhibitory avoidance (IA) task to assess retrieval in male NMRI mice. Bilateral guide cannulae were implanted in the DH. The results showed that in the animals with pre-training injections of ethanol (1. g/kg, i.p.) and pre-test saline treatment memory retrieval was impaired. Pre-test injections of ethanol (0.5 and 1 g/kg, i.p.) also impaired memory retrieval in the animals that received saline before training. Ethanol (1. g/kg, i.p.), when injected in both time points of pre-training and pre-test, induced state-dependent retrieval. The results also revealed that intra-DH infusions of a β-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol (0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 μg/mouse) by itself had no significant effect, however, along with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25. g/kg) significantly improved memory retrieval. On the other hand, pre-test intra-DH infusions of different doses of a non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/mouse) by itself had no effect on memory retrieval. But, pre-test intra-DH infusions of the same doses of propranolol (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/mouse) disrupted ethanol-induced state-dependent retrieval. Interestingly, intra-DH infusions of propranolol (0.05, 0.75 and 0.1 μg/mouse) inhibited the improving effect of salbutamol on state-dependent retrieval. In conclusion, the results support the existence of a functional involvement of β-adrenoceptors in the DH in ethanol-induced state-dependent retrieval. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Ghiasvand M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigated effects of intra-central amygdala (intra-CeA) administrations of a cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2 by itself and its interaction with β1-adrenoceptor agents on memory consolidation. We used a step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) task to assess memory in male Wistar rats. The results showed that post-training intra-CeA administrations of different doses of WIN55,212-2 at doses of 0.1 and 0.25μg/rat impaired memory consolidation (or induced amnesia) as revealed by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day. Post-training intra-CeA injections of a β1-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline (0.01, 0.025, 0.05μg/rat) by itself had no significant effect on memory consolidation, while at all doses prevented the amnesia induced by post-training injections of WIN55,212-2 (0.25μg/rat). Although, post-training intra-CeA administrations of β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol alone at different doses (0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1μg/rat) had no significant effect, but its co-administrations at doses of 0.05 and 0.1μg/rat along with an ineffective dose of WIN55,212-2 (0.05μg/rat) induced amnesia, and at dose of 0.1μg/rat along with an effective dose of WIN55,212-2 (0.25μg/rat) increased amnesia that induced by the later drug. Moreover, the improving effect of isoprenaline (0.025μg/rat) on amnesia induced by WIN55,212-2 (0.25μg/rat) was prevented by intra-CeA co-injections of atenolol at doses of 0.01 and 0.025μg/rat. The present results suggest that a β1-adrenoeceptor mechanism in the central amygdala (CeA) is involved in amnesia induced by post-training intra-CeA injections of WIN55,212-2. © 2012 IBRO.


Ghiasvand M.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Rezayof A.,University of Tehran | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | Zarrindast M.-R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | And 2 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2011

In the present study, we investigated effects of intra-central amygdala (intra-CeA) administrations of a β1-receptor agonist and antagonist, isoprenaline (isoproterenol) and atenolol respectively, on state-dependent memory induced by a cannabioid agonist, WIN55,212-2. This study used a step-through inhibitory avoidance task to assess memory in male Wistar rats. The results showed that post-training intra-CeA administrations of different doses of WIN55,212-2 (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 μg/rat) decreased memory as revealed by a decrease in memory retrieval on the test day. The decrease in retrieval induced by post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.25 μg/rat) was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the drug, which was suggestive of drug-induced state-dependent memory. Although pre-test intra-CeA administrations of isoprenaline (0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 μg/rat) alone had no effect, its co-administrations at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 μg/rat with an ineffective dose of WIN55,212-2 (0.1 μg/rat) restored memory retrieval that impaired by post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.25 μg/rat). The results also showed that pre-test intra-CeA administrations of atenolol (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/rat) alone had no effect, but at dose of 0.1 μg/rat disrupted state-dependent memory induced by WIN55,212-2. Moreover, the improving effect of isoprenaline (0.025 μg/rat) on retrieval of state-dependent memory induced by WIN55,212-2 (0.1 μg/rat) was prevented by intra-CeA co-injections of atenolol. Taken together, our results suggest that the CeA may be potentially critical for state-dependent memory induced by WIN55,212-2 and the β1-noradrenergic receptor mechanism(s) interact with the cannabinergic system in the modulation of this kind of memory in the CeA. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Ghiasvand M.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Rezayof A.,University of Tehran | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2011

In the present study, we investigated the influence of bilateral intra-central amygdala (intra-CeA) microinjections of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agents on amnesia induced by a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA). This study used a step-through inhibitory (passive) avoidance task to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. The results showed that intra-CeA administration of ACPA (2. ng/rat) immediately after training decreased inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory consolidation as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day, which was suggestive of drug-induced amnesia. Post-training intra-CeA microinjections of NMDA (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01μg/rat) did not affect IA memory consolidation. However co-administration of NMDA with ACPA (2. ng/rat) prevented the impairment of IA memory consolidation that was induced by ACPA. Although post-training intra-CeA administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, d-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5; 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1μg/rat) alone had no effect, its co-administration with an ineffective dose of ACPA (1. ng/rat) impaired IA memory consolidation. Post-training intra-CeA microinjection of an ineffective dose of d-AP5 (0.01μg/rat) prevented an NMDA response to the impaired effect of ACPA. These results suggest that amnesia induced by intra-CeA administration of ACPA is at least partly mediated through an NMDA receptor mechanism in the Ce-A. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Ardjmand A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2013

Backgrounds: The amnesic effect of morphine is well known in the laboratory animals. But, it is unclear that morphine at what times can exactly affect different phases of memory, including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. Therefore, we investigated the time profile of morphine's amnesic effect on passive (inhibitory) avoidance learning and memory in male Wistar rats. Methods: In order to evaluate the outcomes of pre- and post-training administrations of morphine, the animals were trained in a stepthrough type of passive avoidance task at various time points, and were tested 24 h after training to measure memory retrieval. Results: The results showed that acquisition of memory was impaired in the animals that received a dose of 7.5 mg/kg of morphine (Intraperitoneally) at 0, 30 min, and 1 h before training, as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day. Post-training administrations of morphine at 30 min and 1h, 4h except for the time immediately after training, did not impair memory consolidation. The results also showed that pre-test administrations of morphine at 0 and 30 min before the test, impaired retrieval of inhibitory avoidance memory. Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that morphine, when injected at different time points before training, after training, or before testing affects different phases of inhibitory avoidance memory. With regard to the time of injections related to each phase, other experiments can be designed to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the impairing effect of morphine in each phase.


Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM | Zarrindast M.R.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Mahboobi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2011

In the present study the influence of the dopaminergic system(s) of the amygdala on the anxiolytic-like effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA), in male Wistar rats was investigated. An elevated plus-maze test of anxiety was used to assess anxiety-like behaviors. The results showed that bilateral intra-amygdala injections of ACPA (0.125, 1.25 and 5 ng/rat) and the mixed dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist, apomorphine, at different doses (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat) increased percentage open arm time (%OAT) and percentage open arm entries (%OAE), indicating an anxiolytic-like effect for both of the drugs. In contrast, intra-amygdala administration of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (2 and 3 μg/rat) decreased %OAT and %OAE, suggesting an anxiogenic-like effect for both of the drugs. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-effective dose of apomorphine (0.0005 μg/rat) increased, while SCH23390 (0.25 μg/rat) and sulpiride (1.5 μg/rat) decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of ACPA. It can be concluded that the dopaminergic system of the amygdala may be involved, at least partly, in the anxiolytic-like effects induced by ACPA in the rat amygdala. © 2011 The Author(s).


Mahmoodi G.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan | pourmotabbed A.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Oryan S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 5 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2010

Interaction of cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) influencing a learned behavior is a topic of great interest. In the present study the effect of intra-VTA administration of a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist, scopolamine, and . N-methyl-. d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agents by themselves as well as their interactions on consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory have been investigated. A step-through inhibitory avoidance task was used for memory assessment in male Wistar rats. The results showed that intra-VTA administration of scopolamine (1 and 2μg/rat) and NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.75 and 1μg/rat) immediately after training, impaired consolidation of IA memory. Interestingly, co-administration of an ineffective dose of MK-801 (0.5μg/rat) with ineffective doses of scopolamine (0.25 and 0.5μg/rat) significantly decreased the consolidation process. Post-training intra-VTA injections of NMDA (0.001 and 0.01μg/rat) had no effects by itself, whereas its co-administration with scopolamine (2μg/rat) prevented the effect of the later drug. The results also showed that pre-test intra-VTA administration of scopolamine (3 and 4μg/rat) and MK-801 (1 and 2μg/rat) impaired retrieval of the IA memory. Moreover, co-administration of an ineffective dose of MK-801 (0.5μg/rat) with ineffective doses of scopolamine (1 and 2μg/rat) increasingly reduced the retrieval of the IA memory. On the contrary to its post-training treatment, pre-test administration of NMDA either alone or in combination with scopolamine caused no significant effect on retrieval of IA memory. It can be concluded that muscarinic acetylcholine and NMDA glutamate receptors in the VTA are involved in the mechanism(s) underlying consolidation and retrieval of the IA memory. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Salimpour Y.,Institute for Studies in Fundamental science IPM
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2010

A temporal point process is a stochastic time series of binary events that occurs in continuous time. In computational neuroscience, the point process is used to model neuronal spiking activity; however, estimating the model parameters from spike train is a challenging problem. The state space point process filtering theory is a new technique for the estimation of the states and parameters. In order to use the stochastic filtering theory for the states of neuronal system with the Gaussian assumption, we apply the extended Kalman filter. In this regard, the extended Kalman filtering equations are derived for the point process observation. We illustrate the new filtering algorithm by estimating the effect of visual stimulus on the spiking activity of object selective neurons from the inferior temporal cortex of macaque monkey. Based on the goodness-offit assessment, the extended Kalman filter provides more accurate state estimate than the conventional methods.

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