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Sibbe M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Kuner E.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Althof D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Frotscher M.,Institute for Structural Neurobiology

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Furthermore, the decline of neurogenesis accompanying aging could be involved in age-related cognitive deficits. It is believed that the neural stem cell niche comprises a specialized microenvironment regulating stem cell activation and maintenance. However, little is known about the significance of the extracellular matrix in controlling adult stem cells. Reelin is a large glycoprotein of the extracelluar matrix known to be of crucial importance for neuronal migration. Here, we examined the local interrelation between Reelin expressing interneurons and putative hippocampal stem cells and investigated the effects of Reelin deficiency on stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation. Reelin-positive cells are found in close vicinity to putative stem cell processes, which would allow for stem cell regulation by Reelin. We investigated the proliferation of stem cells in the Reelin-deficient reeler hippocampus by Ki67 labeling and found a strong reduction of mitotic cells. A detailed analysis of dividing Type 1, type 2 and type 3 cells indicated that once a stem cell is recruited for proliferation, the progression to the next progenitor stage as well as the number of mitotic cycles is not altered in reeler. Our data point to a role for Reelin in either regulating stem cell quiescence or maintenance. © 2015 Sibbe et al. Source

Pohlkamp T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Pohlkamp T.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Steller L.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | May P.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 8 more authors.

We created an Nse-CreERT2 mouse line expressing the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of the neuron-specific enolase (Nse) promoter. By using Cre reporter lines we could show that this Nse-CreERT2 line has recombination activity in the granule cells of all cerebellar lobules as well as in postmitotic granule cell precursors in the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum. A few hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells showed Cre-mediated recombination as well. Cre activity could be induced in both the developing and adult mouse brain. The established mouse line constitutes a valuable tool to study the function of genes expressed by cerebellar granule cells in the developing and adult brain. In combination with reporter lines it is a useful model to analyze the development and maintenance of the cerebellar architecture including granule cell distribution, migration, and the extension of granule cell fibers in vivo. © 2014 Pohlkamp et al. Source

Pohlkamp T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Pohlkamp T.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | David C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | David C.,Semmelweis University | And 14 more authors.
Cerebral Cortex

GABAergic inhibitory interneurons (IN) represent a heterogeneous population with different electrophysiological, morphological, and molecular properties. The correct balance between interneuronal subtypes is important for brain function and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here we show the data of 123 molecularly and electrophysiologically characterized neurons of juvenile rat barrel cortex acute slices, 48 of which expressed Reelin (Reln). Reln mRNA was exclusively detected in Gad65/67-positive cells but was found in interneuronal subtypes in different proportions: all cells of the adapting-Somatostatin (SST) cluster expressed Reln, whereas 63% of the adapting-neuropeptide Y (NPY, 50% of the fast-spiking Parvalbumin (PVALB), and 27% of the adapting/bursting-Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) cluster were Reln-positive. Silhouette analysis revealed a high impact of the parameter Reln on cluster quality. By analyzing the co-localization of RELN immunoreactivity with those of different IN-markers, we found that RELN is produced layer-independently in SST-, NPY-, and NOS1-expressing INs, whereas co-localization of RELN and VIP was mostly absent. Of note, RELN co-localized with PVALB, predominantly in INs of layers IV/V (>30%). Our findings emphasize RELN's role as an important IN-marker protein and provide a basis for the functional characterization of Reln-expressing INs and its role in the regulation of inhibitory IN networks. © The Author 2013. Source

Sapir T.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Frotscher M.,Institute for Structural Neurobiology | Levy T.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Mandelkow E.-M.,Research Center | Reiner O.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Human Molecular Genetics

Microdeletions encompassing the MAPT (Tau) locus resulting in intellectual disability raised the hypothesis that Tau may regulate early functions in the developing brain. Our results indicate that neuronal migration was inhibited in mouse brains following Tau reduction. In addition, the leading edge of radially migrating neurons was aberrant in spite of normal morphology of radial glia. Furthermore, intracellular mitochondrial transport and morphology were affected. In early postnatal brains, a portion of Tau knocked down neurons reached the cortical plate. Nevertheless, they exhibited far less developed dendrites and a striking reduction in connectivity evident by the size of boutons. Our novel results strongly implicate MAPT as a dosage-sensitive gene in this locus involved in intellectual disability. Furthermore, our results are likely to impact our understanding of other diseases involving Tau. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Lane-Donovan C.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Philips G.T.,New York University | Wasser C.R.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Durakoglugil M.S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
Science Signaling

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder and is the most common form of dementia in people over the age of 65 years. The predominant genetic risk factor for AD is the ε4 allele encoding apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). The secreted glycoprotein Reelin enhances synaptic plasticity by binding to the multifunctional ApoE receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr). We have previously shown that the presence of ApoE4 renders neurons unresponsive to Reelin by impairing the recycling of the receptors, thereby decreasing its protective effects against amyloid β (Aβ) oligomer-induced synaptic toxicity in vitro. We showed that when Reelin was knocked out in adult mice, these mice behaved normally without overt learning or memory deficits. However, they were strikingly sensitive to amyloid-induced synaptic suppression and had profound memory and learning disabilities with very low amounts of amyloid deposition. Our findings highlight the physiological importance of Reelin in protecting the brain against Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. Source

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