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Grybek V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Aubry L.,UEVE UMR 861 | Aubry L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Maupetit-Mehouas S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Data from the literature indicate that genomic imprint marks are disturbed in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). GNAS is an imprinted locus that produces one biallelic (Gsα) and four monoallelic (NESP55, GNAS-AS1, XLsα, and A/B) transcripts due to differential methylation of their promoters (DMR). To document imprinting at the GNAS locus in PSCs, we studied GNAS locus DMR methylation and transcript (NESP55, XLsα, and A/B) expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from two human fibroblasts and their progenies. Results showed that (1) methylation at the GNAS locus DMRs is DMR and cell line specific, (2) changes in allelic transcript expression can be independent of a change in allele-specific DNA methylation, and (3) interestingly, methylation at A/B DMR is correlated with A/B transcript expression. These results indicate that these models are valuable to study the mechanisms controlling GNAS methylation, factors involved in transcript expression, and possibly mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Mangeot P.-E.,University of Lyon | Dollet S.,University of Lyon | Girard M.,Institute for Stem Cell Therapy and Exploration of Monogenic Diseases | Ciancia C.,University of Lyon | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2011

Identification of new techniques to express proteins into mammal cells is of particular interest for both research and medical purposes. The present study describes the use of engineered vesicles to deliver exogenous proteins into human cells. We show that overexpression of the spike glycoprotein of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) in human cells induces the release of fusogenic vesicles named gesicles. Biochemical and functional studies revealed that gesicles incorporated proteins from producer cells and could deliver them to recipient cells. This protein-transduction method allows the direct transport of cytoplasmic, nuclear or surface proteins in target cells. This was demonstrated by showing that the TetR transactivator and the receptor for the murine leukemia virus (MLV) envelope murine cationic amino acid transporter-1 (mCAT-1) were efficiently delivered by gesicles in various cell types. We further shows that gesicle-mediated transfer of mCAT-1 confers to human fibroblasts a robust permissiveness to ecotropic vectors, allowing the generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in level 2 biosafety facilities. This highlights the great potential of mCAT-1 gesicles to increase the safety of experiments using retro/lentivectors. Besides this, gesicles is a versatile tool highly valuable for the nongenetic delivery of functions such as transcription factors or genome engineering agents. © 2011 The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Source

Lo Cicero A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lo Cicero A.,Institute for Stem Cell Therapy and Exploration of Monogenic Diseases | Nissan X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Nissan X.,Institute for Stem Cell Therapy and Exploration of Monogenic Diseases
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2015

Progeria, or Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), is a rare, fatal genetic disease characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. This syndrome is typically caused by mutations in codon 608 (p.G608G) of the LMNA, leading to the production of a mutated form of lamin A precursor called progerin. In HGPS, progerin accumulates in cells causing progressive molecular defects, including nuclear shape abnormalities, chromatin disorganization, damage to DNA and delays in cell proliferation. Here we report how, over the past five years, pluripotent stem cells have provided new insights into the study of HGPS and opened new original therapeutic perspectives to treat the disease. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Blondel S.,University of Evry Val dEssonne | Jaskowiak A.-L.,Institute for Stem Cell Therapy and Exploration of Monogenic Diseases | Egesipe A.-L.,University of Evry Val dEssonne | Le Corf A.,University of Evry Val dEssonne | And 10 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by premature aging in children. Identification of the mutation and related molecular mechanisms has rapidly led to independent clinical trials testing different marketed drugs with a preclinically documented impact on those mechanisms. However, the extensive functional effects of those drugs remain essentially unexplored. We have undertaken a systematic comparative study of the three main treatments currently administered or proposed to progeria-affected children, namely, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, the combination of an aminobisphosphonate and a statin (zoledronate and pravastatin), and the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin. This work was based on the assumption that mesodermal stem cells, which are derived from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells expressing major defects associated with the disease, may be instrumental to revealing such effects. Whereas all three treatments significantly improved misshapen cell nuclei typically associated with progeria, differences were observed in terms of functional improvement in prelamin A farnesylation, progerin expression, defective cell proliferation, premature osteogenic differentiation, and ATP production. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of the different drug combinations on this cellular model. This study revealed no additional benefit compared with single-drug treatments, whereas a cytostatic effect equivalent to that of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor alone was systematically observed. Altogether, these results reveal the complexity of the modes of action of different drugs, even when they have been selected on the basis of a similar mechanistic hypothesis, and underscore the use of induced pluripotent stem cell derivatives as a critical and powerful tool for standardized, comparative pharmacological studies. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Denis J.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gauthier M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rachdi L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Aubert S.,Institute for Stem Cell Therapy and Exploration of Monogenic Diseases | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2013

Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 exhibit a diversity of symptoms that affect many different organs. Among these are cognitive dysfunctions, the origin of which has remained elusive, partly because of the difficulty in accessing neural cells. Here, we have taken advantage of pluripotent stem cell lines derived from embryos identified during a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for mutant-gene carriers, to produce early neuronal cells. Functional characterization of these cells revealed reduced proliferative capacity and increased autophagy linked to mTOR signaling pathway alterations. Interestingly, loss of function of MBNL1, an RNA-binding protein whose function is defective in DM1 patients, resulted in alteration of mTOR signaling, whereas gain-of-function experiments rescued the phenotype. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism by which DM1 mutation might affect a major signaling pathway and highlight the pertinence of using pluripotent stem cells to study neuronal defects. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

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