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De Briyne N.,Federation of Veterinarians of Europe | Atkinson J.,Veterinary Medicines Directorate | Borriello S.P.,Veterinary Medicines Directorate | Pokludova L.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines
Veterinary Record | Year: 2014

The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain an insight into European prescribing of antibiotics for animals, in particular to highlight the diseases for which antibiotics are most commonly said to be prescribed and which different classes, including human critically important antibiotics (CIAs). The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Many older antibiotics (eg, penicillins, tetracyclines) are cited most frequently as the prescribed classes to treat the main food producing species. The frequency of citation of non-CIAs predominates. CIAs are mostly frequently cited to be prescribed for: urinary diseases in cats (62 per cent), respiratory diseases in cattle (45 per cent), diarrhoea in cattle and pigs (respectively 29 per cent and 34 per cent), locomotion disorders in cattle (31 per cent), postpartum dysgalactia syndrome complex in pigs (31 per cent) and dental disease in dogs (36 per cent). Clear 'preferences' between countries can be observed between antibiotic classes. The use of national formularies and guidance helps to drive responsible use of antibiotics and can significantly reduce the extent of use of CIAs. A more widespread introduction of veterinary practice antibiotic prescribing policies and monitoring obedience to these should ensure more widespread compliance with responsible use guidelines. Source


De Briyne N.,Federation of Veterinarians of Europe | Atkinson J.,Authorisations | Pokludova L.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines | Borriello S.P.,Authorisations | Price S.,Authorisations
Veterinary Record | Year: 2013

The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Responses indicate no single information source is universally considered critical, though training, published literature and experience were the most important. Factors recorded which most strongly influenced prescribing behaviour were sensitivity tests, own experience, the risk for antibiotic resistance developing and ease of administration. Most practitioners usually take into account responsible use warnings. Antibiotic sensitivity testing is usually performed where a treatment failure has occurred. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of sensitivity testing at the level of types of practitioners and country. The responses indicate a need to improve sensitivity tests and services, with the availability of rapid and cheaper testing being key factors. Source


Cirkva A.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines | Stastny K.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

A sensitive and selective analytical method for the determination of four thyreostats (tapazol, thiouracil, methylthiouracil and propylthiouracil) in cow's milk, lamb's milk, and goat's milk was developed and validated according to 2002/657/EC criteria. Proteins in milk samples were precipitated by acetonitrile and analytes were derivatised with 3-iodobenzylbromide. Afterwards, derivatives were separated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS in a positive electrospray mode. The method provides, for all determined analytes, decision limits CCα below 1 ng ml-1 and a detection capability CCβ value below 1.5 ng ml-1. The stability of analytes in sample extracts stored at various conditions was also tested and evaluated. © 2013 Copyright USKVBL. Source


Zelnickova H.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines | Rejtharova M.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Rapid and sensitive methods based on LC-MS/MS using positive electrospray ionisation have been developed for the determination of nine 5-nitroimidazoles and their three hydroxylated metabolites in blood serum, egg and muscle samples. The methods use a new type of column based on molecularly imprinted polymer for the cleanup of primary extracts of samples. A validation study was carried out according to criteria (accuracy, linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, ruggedness and specificity) and the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The methods with molecularly imprinted polymers are simple, fast and selective for the extraction of 5-nitroimidazoles from different matrices. They provide high recovery, good reproducibility, clean extracts and low background signals. The decision limits and detection capabilities were lower than the recommended minimum required performance limits in every matrix. These procedures could also be used as screening and confirmatory methods for the monitoring of veterinary drug residues. © 2013 Copyright Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines. Source


Farsa O.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Sedlakova S.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Podlipna J.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines | Maxa J.,Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologicals and Medicines
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society | Year: 2015

Calcium, magnesium and zinc 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonates (dobesilates) were synthesized by sulfonation of hydroquinone with sulfuric acid under mild conditions. To form the salts, neutralization with calcium carbonate followed by cation exchange by means of magnesium or zinc sulfates was performed. The dobesilates were characterized by standard spectral methods and by AAS for metal content and then tested for inhibitory activity against aminopeptidase N. The calcium and magnesium 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonates exhibited rather weak inhibitory activity to aminopeptidase N, as demonstrated by the IC50 values of 978.0 and 832.1 μmol L-1, respectively, while zinc 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate reached a more significant inhibitory activity characterized by an IC50 value of 77.4 μmol L-1. The results of the inhibition activity suggest that the inhibition of aminopeptidase N could play a role in the anti-angiogenic activity of 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonates. © 2015, Serbian Chemical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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