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Lee C.-F.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Matsumura Y.,Hokkaido University | Matsumura Y.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

New records of four species (Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845, L. diversipes Pic, 1921, L. cyanella (Linnaeus, 1758), L. trivittata trivittata Say, 1824 and additional information on one recently recorded species (L. solani Fabricius, 1798) are reported for Taiwan. Lema diversipes Pic, 1921 is removed from synonymy with L. lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845; both species are redescribed. A lectotype is designated for L. phungi Pic, 1924. The synonymies of L. phungi Pic, 1924 and L. jeanvoinei Pic, 1932 with L. lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845 are supported. A revised key to the known species in Taiwan is provided. © Copyright Chi-Feng Lee, Yoko Matsumura.

Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum | Wang B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Tan J.-J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Ge S.-Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 2 more authors.
Cladistics | Year: 2013

The relationships of extant and extinct lineages of Adephaga were analysed formally for the first time. Emphasis is placed on the aquatic and semiaquatic groups and their evolution in the Mesozoic. †Triadogyrus and †Mesodineutus belong to Gyrinidae, the sister group of the remaining families. †Triaplidae are the sister group of the following groups (Haliplidae, Geadephaga, Dytiscoidea incl. †Liadytidae, †Parahygrobiidae and †Coptoclavidae [major part]). The lack of a ventral procoxal joint and a very short prosternal process are plesiomorphies of †Triaplidae. †Coptoclavidae and †Timarchopsinae are paraphyletic. †Timarchopsis is placed in a geadephagan clade. In contrast to other coptoclavids, its metathorax is close to the condition found in Haliplidae, with a complete transverse ridge and coxae with large plates and free mesal walls. †Coptoclavidae s.str., i.e. excl. †Timarchopsis, is a dytiscoid subgroup. The mesal metacoxal walls are fused, the coxal plates are reduced, and the transverse ridge is absent. †Stygeonectes belongs to this dytiscoid coptoclavid unit and is therefore misplaced in †Timarchopsinae. †Liadytidae belongs to a dytiscoid subgroup, which also comprises the extant families Aspidytidae, Amphizoidae, Hygrobiidae and Dytiscidae. †Parahygrobia is the sister group of Hygrobiidae. The larvae are characterized by a broad gula, the absence of the lacinia, retractile maxillary bases and very long urogomphi set with long setae. †Liadytiscinae is the sister group of extant Dytiscidae. There is no support for a clade †Eodromeinae and for Trachypachidae incl. †Eodromeinae. †Fortiseode is nested within Carabidae. The exclusion of fossil taxa has no effect on the branching pattern. The evolution of Adephaga in the Mesozoic is discussed. Possible reasons for the extinction of †Coptoclavidae are the rise of teleost fish and the competition of Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae, which possess efficient defensive glands and larval mandibular sucking channels. © The Willi Hennig Society 2012.

Brehm G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum | Strutzenberger P.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections | Fiedler K.,University of Vienna
Ecography | Year: 2013

Species diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) has previously been shown to be extremely and constantly high along a continuously forested elevational gradient in the Andes of southern Ecuador. We analysed samples taken from 32 sites between 1999 and 2011 in northern Podocarpus National Park and adjacent areas from 1020 to 2916 m a.s.l. We conjecture that high elevation habitats were historically mostly colonised by species from lower elevations, and that environmental filtering (e.g. through host plant specificity or temperature tolerance) constrained colonisation from lower elevations, which would yield a pattern of elevationally decreasing phylogenetic diversity. We analysed elevational phylogenetic patterns by means of: 1) the nearest-taxon index (NTI), 2) DNA barcode-based terminal branch lengths (TBLs) from maximum-likelihood phylogeny, 3) the subfamily composition of the local assemblages, and 4), the rarefied number of morphologically defined genera per site. We counted a total of 1445 species. NTI values significantly increased with elevation, both in a conventional and a rarefaction approach. TBLs decreased significantly with elevation. Subfamily composition profoundly changed with elevation, particularly expressed as an increased proportion of the subfamily Larentiinae and decreased fractions of Sterrhinae and Geometrinae. The number of genera in equally rarefied species resamples significantly decreased with elevation. We conclude that environmental filtering indeed contributed to an altitudinal decrease in moth phylodiversity, but these constraints prevented only relatively few clades from colonising high elevation habitats. © 2013 The Authors.

Trautwein M.D.,North Carolina State University | Wiegmann B.M.,North Carolina State University | Beutel R.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum | Kjer K.M.,Rutgers University | Yeates D.K.,CSIRO
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2012

Most species on Earth are insects and thus, understanding their evolutionary relationships is key to understanding the evolution of life. Insect relationships are increasingly well supported, due largely to technological advances in molecular sequencing and phylogenetic computational analysis. In this postgenomic era, insect systematics will be furthered best by integrative methods aimed at hypothesis corroboration from molecular, morphological, and paleontological evidence. This review of the current consensus of insect relationships provides a foundation for comparative study and offers a framework to evaluate incoming genomic evidence. Notable recent phylogenetic successes include the resolution of Holometabola, including the identification of the enigmatic Strepsiptera as a beetle relative and the early divergence of Hymenoptera; the recognition of hexapods as a crustacean lineage within Pancrustacea; and the elucidation of Dictyoptera orders, with termites placed as social cockroaches. Regions of the tree that require further investigation include the earliest winged insects (Palaeoptera) and Polyneoptera (orthopteroid lineages). © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kukalova-Peck J.,Carleton University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie Mit Phyletischem Museum
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

Béthoux recently identified the species †Adiphlebia lacoana Scudder from the Carboniferous of Mazon Creek, Ill., USA as the oldest beetle. The fossils bear coriaceous tegmina with pseudo-veins allegedly aligned with "rows of cells" as they occur in Permian beetles and extant Archostemata. The examination of four new specimens of †Adiphlebia lacoana from the same locality revealed that the "cells" are in fact clumps of clay inside a delicate meshwork, and no derived features shared with Coleoptera or Coleopterida (= Coleoptera + Strepsiptera) were found. Instead, †Adiphlebia lacoana bears veinal fusions and braces similar to extant Neuroptera. These features support a placement in †Strephocladidae, and are also similar to conditions found in †Tococladidae. These unplaced basal holometabolan families were erroneously re-analyzed as ancestral Mantodea and Orthoptera. Homologization of the wing pairs in neopteran lineages is updated and identification errors are corrected. A new Permian beetle family †Moravocoleidae [†Protocoleoptera (= Permian Coleoptera with pointed unpaired ovipositor; e.g., †Tshekardocoleidae)] is described.

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