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Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Journal of morphology | Year: 2013

Cover illustration. Mayetiola destructor is a major pest of wheat in Europe, North Africa and North America. In this issue of the Journal of Morphology, Schneeberg et al. (pp. 1299-1311) investigate the adult head structures of the cecidomyiid fly and compared their findings with evolutionarily less successful families within Bibionomorpha. The cover image shows a histological cross section of the head of Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bai M.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Shih C.-K.,Capital Normal University | Ren D.,Capital Normal University | Yang X.-K.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2013

Morphologically, Scarabaeoidea is one of the best-studied groups of beetles. However, the incomplete preservation of presently known fossils is a fundamental problem in the interpretation of extinct species of the superfamily. Wing venation has long been recognized as a valuable character system in taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. However, to date hind wing features of scarab fossils have not been analysed using geometric morphometrics. A new genus and a new species, Septiventer quadridentatus gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated and assigned to a new scarabaeoid family Septiventeridae fam. nov., based on one well-preserved specimen from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. The phylogenetic position of Septiventer is inferred based on 68 morphological characters using a cladistic approach. Additionally, based on a geometric morphometric analysis of the hind wing of Septiventer, the structural affinities of 161 scarabs and six outgroup species is analysed, using 261 wing landmarks. Septiventeridae is identified as the sister group of the remaining Scarabaeoidea, with Glaresidae and Trogidae as the next branches. Consequently, it is crucial for an understanding of the early diversification of the superfamily, and for the reconstruction of early evolutionary transformations in the group. Septiventeridae differs strongly from most 'modern' lineages in wing shape. However, the structural affinity of the hind wings of Septiventeridae, Glaresidae and Trogidae are robustly supported by the results from morphometrics. This fits well with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on the general character set and strongly suggests that this wing pattern is closest to the scarabaeoid groundplan. The morphological features suggest good flying abilities of Septiventer, that it might have been active during the daytime, processed soft food, and was less active in digging tunnels than extant, more specialized dung beetles. © 2013 Natural History Museum. Source

Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Friedrich F.,University of Hamburg | Courtney G.W.,Iowa State University | Wipfler B.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2012

Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yavorskaya M.I.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Yavorskaya M.I.,Moscow State University | Leschen R.A.B.,New Zealand Arthropod Collection | Polilov A.A.,Moscow State University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2014

The head morphology of larvae of two undescribed species of the corylophid genus Holopsis were examined. Both are associated with the same basidiomycete host Ganoderma cf applanatum. Whereas the round and convex adults are very similar, one of the disc-shaped larvae is characterized by an elongate weevil-like snout, which is a unique feature in larval beetles. The posterior head region, the mouthparts and the general configuration of the musculature are similar in the larvae of both species. However, in the rostrate Holopsis sp. 1 most muscles are either widened along the longitudinal axis or elongated. Moreover, an additional bundle of M. frontobuccalis posterior is present, which strengthens the pharyngeal pumping apparatus. Both species share an unusual connection between the prepharynx and pharynx. This is a potential autapomorphy of the genus. The larval cephalic morphology of Holopsis sp. 2 and the corylophine genus Sericoderus is quite similar. However, they differ in some muscular features and in the configuration of the foregut. Holopsis species are associated with Basidiomycetes. Whether this is an ancestral condition in Corylophidae remains ambiguous due to conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses and the largely unknown biology of the Australian subfamily Periptyctinae. Several features of Holopsis are likely plesiomorphic and possibly related with the association with basidiomycetes. However, the larval rostrum of sp. 1 is doubtlessly derived, and could have a performance advantage over other species feeding on the spores of Ganoderma cf applanatum including Holopsis sp. 2. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Friedemann K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Friedemann K.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

Pretarsal attachment structures of representatives of the megadiverse Diptera are examined and documented, mainly using scanning electron microscopy. The focus is on the basal 'nematoceran' lineages. The diversity in structures is much higher than suggested by brief summarizing accounts in earlier studies. Both hairy and smooth attachment structures occur. A well-developed, pad-like empodium with its ventral surface covered with adhesive hairs is arguably a groundplan feature of Diptera. Very often this pad is combined with the presence of hairy pulvilli. However, smooth pulvilli occur in two of the examined groups. A smooth arolium is present in Tipulomorpha and likely an autapomorphy of this clade, suggesting that it was acquired secondarily. Evolutionary transformations are interpreted based on recently published dipteran phylogenies. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

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