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Dressler C.,Museum fur Tierkunde | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2010

The adult heads of representatives of different adephagan families - aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial - were examined and compared. External and internal structures were described and documented in detail for the genera Trachypachus (Trachypachidae), Haliplus (Haliplidae), Amphizoa (Amphizoidae) and the recently discovered Aspidytes (Aspidytidae). A list of characters of potential phylogenetic relevance was compiled and the data matrix combined with the large data set of thoracic and abdominal features for different life stages. The cladistic analysis of this comprehensive data matrix of 138 characters for 16 taxa covering all adephagan families led to one most parsimonous tree. The monophyly of the Geadephaga (Trachypachidae + Carabidae) is strongly supported. The Gyrinidae are the sistergroup of all remaining adephagan beetles. The Meruidae are sister to the Dytiscoidea and both together form the sistergroup of the Haliplidae. The sistergroup relationship of Aspidytidae and Amphizoidae is confirmed. The placement of Meruidae is impeded by the lack of larval characters. It may change when information on structural features of immature stages becomes available. The Trachypachidae, a small relict family with its greatest diversity and distribution in the early Mesozoic, probably come close to the last common ancestor of the Adephaga in the structural features of the adult head. They share structural similarities with the aquatic Dytiscoidea and the terrestrial Carabidae. It is hypothesized that the common ancestor of Adephaga had a relatively unspecialised head morphology and was a predator, possibly with a preference for a riparian habitat. Adaptations for an aquatic environment evolved at least two times and possibly even three times independently. Within these lineages a great diversity of different life styles developed such as the highly specialised surface gliding Gyrinidae, the hygropetric Aspidytidae, the strongly miniaturised Meruidae or the algophagous Haliplidae. © Museum für Tierkunde Dresden.


Dressler C.,Museum fur Tierkunde | Ge S.-Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2011

Larval characters of Meru were extracted from the recently published description and added to an extensive data matrix from an earlier study on the phylogenetic position of the genus and family. The results confirm the earlier postulated clade Meruidae + Noteridae with strong support. The larvae share several characteristics with noterid larvae, notably the specific head shape, with the greatest width close to the foramen occipitale, the fissure-shaped posterior tentorial grooves at the posterior margin of the head capsule and the anteriorly cleft prementum. From a formal point of view, it would be justified to treat Meru as a subgroup of Noteridae (if the larva is properly identified). We refute the placement of Meruidae as a sister group of the remaining Dytiscoidea (including Noteridae). The new larval characters are valuable and informative, but a small set of external features is not sufficient for a reliable placement of Meruidae. © 2011 The Authors. Systematic Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.


Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Friedrich F.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Aspock U.,Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

External and internal head structures of larvae of Nevrorthidae were described in detail. The results were compared to conditions found in other representatives of Neuroptera and the other two neuropterid orders. The cladistic analysis supported the monophyly of Neuroptera, Neuroptera exclusive of Nevrorthidae, Hemerobiiformia, and Myrmeleontiformia. Neuroptera exclusive of Nevrorthidae are supported by the formation of an undivided postmentum and the presence of cryptonephric Malpighian tubules. The highly specialized articulation of the neck (Rollengelenk) and the absence of a salivary duct are autapomorphies of Nevrorthidae. Ithonidae and Polystoechotidae form a clade and are the sister group of the remaining Hemerobiiformia, which are characterized by the complete lack of a gula and a terminal filament of the antenna. Within this lineage, a clade comprising Mantispidae, Dilaridae, Berothidae, and Rhachiberothidae is well supported. Larvae of Myrmeleontiformia are characterized by a complex transformation of head structures, with a hypostomal bridge, a small triangular gula, largely reduced maxillary grooves, and anteriorly shifted posterior tentorial grooves. The slender finger-like mid-dorsal apodeme is another autapomorphy of the group. Psychopsidae are placed as the sister group of the remaining Myrmeleontiformia, which are characterized by a conspicuous, protruding ocular region (often less distinct or even absent in Nemopteridae). Ascalaphidae are the sister group of Myrmeleontidae. Larvae of both families share the fusion of the tibia and tarsus in the hind leg. The larval characters analysed were not sufficient for full resolution of the myrmeleontiform and hemerobiiform lineages. The position of several families such as Osmylidae, Sisyridae, and Coniopterygidae remains uncertain. The results are in agreement with an aquatic ancestor of Neuroptera and secondarily acquired terrestrial habits within the lineage (Neuroptera exclusive of Nevrorthidae), and another invasion of the aquatic environment by Sisyridae. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.


Yavorskaya M.I.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Yavorskaya M.I.,Moscow State University | Leschen R.A.B.,New Zealand Arthropod Collection | Polilov A.A.,Moscow State University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2014

The head morphology of larvae of two undescribed species of the corylophid genus Holopsis were examined. Both are associated with the same basidiomycete host Ganoderma cf applanatum. Whereas the round and convex adults are very similar, one of the disc-shaped larvae is characterized by an elongate weevil-like snout, which is a unique feature in larval beetles. The posterior head region, the mouthparts and the general configuration of the musculature are similar in the larvae of both species. However, in the rostrate Holopsis sp. 1 most muscles are either widened along the longitudinal axis or elongated. Moreover, an additional bundle of M. frontobuccalis posterior is present, which strengthens the pharyngeal pumping apparatus. Both species share an unusual connection between the prepharynx and pharynx. This is a potential autapomorphy of the genus. The larval cephalic morphology of Holopsis sp. 2 and the corylophine genus Sericoderus is quite similar. However, they differ in some muscular features and in the configuration of the foregut. Holopsis species are associated with Basidiomycetes. Whether this is an ancestral condition in Corylophidae remains ambiguous due to conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses and the largely unknown biology of the Australian subfamily Periptyctinae. Several features of Holopsis are likely plesiomorphic and possibly related with the association with basidiomycetes. However, the larval rostrum of sp. 1 is doubtlessly derived, and could have a performance advantage over other species feeding on the spores of Ganoderma cf applanatum including Holopsis sp. 2. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Friedrich F.,University of Hamburg | Courtney G.W.,Iowa State University | Wipfler B.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2012

Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bai M.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Shih C.-K.,Capital Normal University | Ren D.,Capital Normal University | Yang X.-K.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2013

Morphologically, Scarabaeoidea is one of the best-studied groups of beetles. However, the incomplete preservation of presently known fossils is a fundamental problem in the interpretation of extinct species of the superfamily. Wing venation has long been recognized as a valuable character system in taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. However, to date hind wing features of scarab fossils have not been analysed using geometric morphometrics. A new genus and a new species, Septiventer quadridentatus gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated and assigned to a new scarabaeoid family Septiventeridae fam. nov., based on one well-preserved specimen from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. The phylogenetic position of Septiventer is inferred based on 68 morphological characters using a cladistic approach. Additionally, based on a geometric morphometric analysis of the hind wing of Septiventer, the structural affinities of 161 scarabs and six outgroup species is analysed, using 261 wing landmarks. Septiventeridae is identified as the sister group of the remaining Scarabaeoidea, with Glaresidae and Trogidae as the next branches. Consequently, it is crucial for an understanding of the early diversification of the superfamily, and for the reconstruction of early evolutionary transformations in the group. Septiventeridae differs strongly from most 'modern' lineages in wing shape. However, the structural affinity of the hind wings of Septiventeridae, Glaresidae and Trogidae are robustly supported by the results from morphometrics. This fits well with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on the general character set and strongly suggests that this wing pattern is closest to the scarabaeoid groundplan. The morphological features suggest good flying abilities of Septiventer, that it might have been active during the daytime, processed soft food, and was less active in digging tunnels than extant, more specialized dung beetles. © 2013 Natural History Museum.


Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Courtney G.W.,Iowa State University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2011

Adult head structures of Deuterophlebia coloradensis were examined, 3-dimensionally reconstructed and described. The results are compared to those of other representatives of basal dipteran lineages, primarily Nymphomyia dolichopeza (Nymphomyiidae) and Edwardsina gracilis (Blephariceridae). The head structures are extremely simplified. The labrum, mandibles, maxillae and labium are completely reduced. Only eight pairs of muscles are present. These modifications are possibly linked with the extremely short life span and non-feeding of adults. Possible synapomorphies of Deuterophlebiidae + Nymphomyiidae are the loss of all mouthparts, the elongation of the terminal antennal segment, and the loss of M. tentoriobuccalis anterior. An alternative placement of Deuterophlebiidae as sister group of Blephariceridae is only suggested by the origin of M. tentorioscapalis posterior on the vertex. Blephariceromorpha (Deuterophlebiidae, Nymphomyiidae, Blephariceridae) is only weakly supported by features of the adult head. The missing frontoclypeal and clypeolabral suture and the origin of M. tentorioscapalis on the head capsule are potential autapomorphies. Our results do not support a sister group relationship between Deuterophlebiidae and the remaining Diptera. A reliable reconstruction of basal dipteran relationships is impeded by missing morphological data for many potential key taxa. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Friedemann K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Friedemann K.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

Pretarsal attachment structures of representatives of the megadiverse Diptera are examined and documented, mainly using scanning electron microscopy. The focus is on the basal 'nematoceran' lineages. The diversity in structures is much higher than suggested by brief summarizing accounts in earlier studies. Both hairy and smooth attachment structures occur. A well-developed, pad-like empodium with its ventral surface covered with adhesive hairs is arguably a groundplan feature of Diptera. Very often this pad is combined with the presence of hairy pulvilli. However, smooth pulvilli occur in two of the examined groups. A smooth arolium is present in Tipulomorpha and likely an autapomorphy of this clade, suggesting that it was acquired secondarily. Evolutionary transformations are interpreted based on recently published dipteran phylogenies. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.


Schneeberg K.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Journal of morphology | Year: 2013

Cover illustration. Mayetiola destructor is a major pest of wheat in Europe, North Africa and North America. In this issue of the Journal of Morphology, Schneeberg et al. (pp. 1299-1311) investigate the adult head structures of the cecidomyiid fly and compared their findings with evolutionarily less successful families within Bibionomorpha. The cover image shows a histological cross section of the head of Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Fraulob M.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Wipfler B.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Hunefeld F.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Pohl H.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2012

External and internal structures of the larval abdomen of . Nannochorista are described in detail, with emphasis on the posterior segments. The results are compared with conditions found in other groups of Antliophora, especially the mecopteran subgroups Boreidae and Pistillifera. Like the entire postcephalic body, the larval abdomen of . Nannochorista is extremely slender and nearly cylindrical. The anterior segments are largely unmodified. The surface is smooth and lacks any protuberances or prolegs. The term " cloaca" for the posterior membranous pouch of . Nannochorista sp. is morphologically unjustified. A list of muscles of segments IX and X is presented. The abdominal musculature was partly homologized following Snodgrass. The muscles of segment X are highly modified. They move the membranous pouch, the anal papillae, and the terminal lobes. The presence of these structures is likely an adaptation to the specific aquatic life style of nannochoristid larvae. The anal papillae are possibly homologous to the 4-lobed terminal attachment apparatus of larvae of . Caurinus (Boreidae) and Pistillifera (Panorpidae, Bittacidae, Choristidae) but this is uncertain. The specific condition in both groups, i.e. two retractile papillae with tracheae and Malpighian tubules in Nannochoristidae, and a 4-lobed exposed attachment device in Pistillifera + Boreidae (groundplan) are very likely autapomorphic for both groups, respectively. A slender abdomen with smooth surface is very likely plesiomorphic within Antliophora and Mecopterida. This condition is found in Trichoptera (partim), Nannochoristidae, Siphonaptera, and many basal groups of Diptera. An eruciform or scarabaeiform body shape with a soft, largely unsclerotised cuticle is probably a synapomorphy of Boreidae and Pistillifera. The presence of ventral protuberances resembling prolegs on the anterior segments is an autapomorphy of the latter group. The homology of paired or unpaired terminal appendages of segment X is uncertain. However, the specific condition of paired and 3-segmented appendages with hooks in Nannochoristidae is almost certainly autapomorphic for this family. The protracted opening of the hind gut on the membranous pouch is another potential autapomorphy of Nannochoristidae. Aquatic habits of larvae, also very likely an apomorphic condition, have likely evolved several times independently in Antliophora. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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