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Jaloszynski P.,Wroclaw University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development

We present the results of a morphological study of the labium and labial (premental) discs in Cephenniini, ant-like stone beetles feeding on oribatid mites. The discs are composed of a cuticular plate connected by a circumferential ring with the hypopharyngeal suspensorium. The discs have likely developed from the premental cuticle and from internal sclerotizations of the labium. The shape of the external plate can be changed from flat to concave and vice versa by contractions and relaxations of the labial muscles. Contractions result in a flat or only slightly concave shape whereas during relaxation the discs become strongly concave and adhere tightly to the captured mite. Once this is achieved, detaining of the prey is energy-free. Based on known hypotheses concerning the evolution of Oribatida and Staphylinidae, we exclude the possibility of a co-evolution of " proto-Cephenniini" with yet unarmored " proto-Oribatida" , and suggest three alternative scenarios: i) the predators co-evolved with a particular early lineage of Oribatida that has acquired the hard armor relatively recently; ii) ancestors of Cephenniini gradually shifted from feeding on other types of prey towards fully armored Oribatida; or iii) the labial discs have originally developed for functions not related to feeding. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lawrence J.F.,CSIRO | Slipinski A.,CSIRO | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie | Newton A.F.,Field Museum of Natural History

A larva is described which is presumed to be that of Lepicerus inaequalis Motschulsky based on several probable first instars and one later instar collected a few miles from and in a similar habitat to adult specimens of this species. The as-sociation is additionally based on several features also occurring in other known myxophagan larvae. A key is provided comparing these larvae with those of the other three families of Myxophaga. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Jaloszynski P.,Wroclaw University | Matsumura Y.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development

We compared the postabdominal architecture of Mastigini with extremely long ( Stenomastigus) or short ( Palaeostigus) aedeagus. A novel mode of copulation was discovered: males of Stenomastigus insert a paramere between the female's abdomen and elytra, and the intromission is stabilized by several structures of both sexes. The intrinsic aedeagal mechanism is indicated as responsible for inflating the endophallus, and the long flagellum does not penetrate the ductus spermathecae during copulation. The structure of the flagellum suggests that it is primarily responsible for the sperm transfer. Asymmetrical postabdominal rotators of the aedeagus were only found in Stenomastigus; they presumably facilitate the withdrawal of the genitalia; their origin as bundles separated from larger muscles is postulated. We discuss a scenario in which the evolution of elongated genitalia was facilitated by the lack of structural constraints and existing preadaptations. Benefits of stabilizing the copulation and intromission are indicated as the driving force for the evolution of extremely long aedeagi, while the short aedeagi might have the advantage of freedom of movements facilitating the initiation of copulation by males. Disruptive selection is suggested as a working hypothesis to further investigate mechanisms that have played a role in the evolution of genital structures of Mastigini. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jaloszynski P.,Wroclaw University | Hunefeld F.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development

We present the first study of the central nervous system of adult representatives of Scydmaeninae. Histological staining, scanning electron microscopy and computer-based 3D reconstruction techniques were used to document the shape and configuration of the major cephalic elements of the central nervous system and to explain its anomalies compared to other Coleoptera. For the first time we report the presence of cephalic glands in ant-like stone beetles: in Scydmaenus (Cholerus) hellwigii openings of voluminous glands are located near the occipital constriction and their secretion accumulates in a large cavity of the dorsal head region. In Scydmaenus (Cholerus) perrisi the proto-, deuto-, tritocerebrum and the suboesophageal ganglion together form a large and compact ganglionic mass around the anterior foregut in the retracted neck region of the head. We exclude miniaturization as the driving force of the observed modifications. Comparative study of the head anatomy of S. perrisi, S. hellwigii, Scydmaenus (s. str.) tarsatus, Scydmaenus (Parallomicrus) rufus and Neuraphes elongatulus suggests a possible evolutionary scenario. We propose an evolutionary reversal hypothesis, involving a) the displacement and concentration of the cephalic central nervous system induced by the development of glandular cavities of the head, followed by b) a reduction of the glandular structures, without a secondary relocation of the cephalic CNS. The interpretation of head modifications in Scydmaeninae in the light of such a scenario may turn out as important for the reconstruction of the phylogeny and evolution of this highly successful group of beetles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wipfler B.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie | Courtney G.W.,Iowa State University | Craig D.A.,University of Alberta | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie And Evolutionsbiologie
Journal of Morphology

The larval head of Protanyderus was examined and documented using innovative techniques, with emphasis on internal structures. A chart listing all head muscles of dipteran larvae and other holometabolan groups is presented in the Supporting Information. The results are compared to conditions found in other nematoceran lineages. The larval head of Protanyderus is characterized mainly by plesiomorphic character states such as the complete and largely exposed head capsule, the long coronal suture, V-shaped frontal sutures, lateral antennal insertion areas, a transverse labrum, a nearly horizontal plane of mandibular movements, mandibles lacking a movable distal part, a mesal hook and mesal or distal combs, separated maxillary endite lobes, a comparatively complete array of muscles, and a brain only partly located within the head capsule. An anteriorly toothed hypostomal plate and dense labral brushes of microtrichiae are also likely groundplan features of Diptera. The pharyngeal filter is a possible apomorphy of Diptera excl. Deuterophlebiidae (or Deuterophlebiidae + Nymphomyiidae). The messors have also likely evolved early in the dipteran crown group but are absent in the groundplan. The phylogenetic interpretation of externolateral plates with growth lines is ambiguous. Autapomorphies of Tanyderidae are differences between the third and fourth instar larvae, the roof-like extension above the antennal insertion area, the dorsal endocarina, and the posterodorsal internal ridge. The phylogenetic position of Tanyderidae is controversial, but features of the larval head do not support a proposed sistergroup relationship between Tanyderidae and Psychodidae. Both groups differ in many features of the larval head, and we did not identify a single potential synapomorphy. Larval characters alone are insufficient for a reliable phylogenetic reconstruction, though they vary greatly and apparently contain phylogenetic information. The evaluation of these features in the context of robust molecular phylogenies will be a sound basis for the reconstruction of complex evolutionary scenarios for the megadiverse Diptera. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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