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Elliott L.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Ream G.,Adelphi University | McGinsky E.,Temple University | Dunlap E.,Institute for Special Populations Research
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction | Year: 2012

A nationally representative online survey (n = 3,380) was used to assess the contribution of patterns of video game play to problem video game play (PVGP) symptomatology. Game genre, enjoyment, consumer involvement, time spent gaming (gaming days in the past month and hours on days used), and demographic variables were all examined. The study confirms game genre's contribution to problem use as well as demographic variation in play patterns that underlie problem video game play vulnerability. Identification of a small group of game types positively correlated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games. Unique vulnerabilities to problem use among certain groups demonstrate the need for ongoing investigation of health disparities related to contextual dimensions of video game play. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Ream G.L.,Adelphi University | Elliott L.C.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Dunlap E.,Institute for Special Populations Research
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

"Behavioral addictions" share biological mechanisms with substance dependence, and "drug interactions" have been observed between certain substances and self-reinforcing behaviors. This study examines correlates of patterns of and motivations for playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance (concurrent use). Data were drawn from a nationally-representative survey of adult Americans who "regularly" or "occasionally" played video games and had played for at least one hour in the past seven days (n = 3,380). Only recent concurrent users' data were included in analyses (n = 1,196). Independent variables included demographics, substance use frequency and problems, game genre of concurrent use (identified by looking titles up in an industry database), and general game playing variables including problem video game play (PVP), consumer involvement, enjoyment, duration, and frequency of play. Exploratory factor analysis identified the following dimensions underlying patterns of and motivations for concurrent use: pass time or regulate negative emotion, enhance an already enjoyable or positive experience, and use of video games and substances to remediate each other's undesirable effects. Multivariate regression analyses indicated PVP and hours/day of video game play were associated with most patterns/motivations, as were caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and painkiller use problems. This suggests that concurrent use with some regular situational pattern or effect-seeking motivation is part of the addictive process underlying both PVP and substance dependence. Various demographic, game playing, game genre of concurrent use, and substance use variables were associated with specific motivations/patterns, indicating that all are important in understanding concurrent use. © 2011 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Ream G.L.,Adelphi University | Elliott L.C.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Dunlap E.,Institute for Special Populations Research
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance-referred to herein as 'concurrent use'-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabe ́ Mora ́n's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for 'drug interaction' between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. © 2011 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Ream G.L.,Adelphi University | Johnson B.D.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Dunlap E.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Benoit E.,Institute for Special Populations Research
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy | Year: 2010

Internationally, where marijuana is illegal, users follow etiquette rules that prevent negative consequences of use. In this study, adherence to etiquette is hypothesized to reduce likelihood of marijuana-related police stop/search and arrest. Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of 462 marijuana-using peer groups in several areas of New York City. Findings indicated that lack of etiquette was associated with dramatically higher likelihood of police stop/search or arrest only for users who were Black, male, and/or recruited from Harlem/South Bronx. If these users followed a few identified etiquette rules, their risk of police stop/search or arrest was comparable to that of other users. Implications are that etiquette represents an intentional conscientiousness about marijuana use. Groups that are specially targeted for anti-marijuana enforcement can remediate that heightened risk by following marijuana etiquette. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Elliott L.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Golub A.,Institute for Special Populations Research | Ream G.,Adelphi University | Dunlap E.,Institute for Special Populations Research
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2012

This study assessed how problem video game playing (PVP) varies with game type, or "genre," among adult video gamers. Participants (n=3,380) were adults (18+) who reported playing video games for 1 hour or more during the past week and completed a nationally representative online survey. The survey asked about characteristics of video game use, including titles played in the past year and patterns of (problematic) use. Participants self-reported the extent to which characteristics of PVP (e.g., playing longer than intended) described their game play. Five percent of our sample reported moderate to extreme problems. PVP was concentrated among persons who reported playing first-person shooter, action adventure, role-playing, and gambling games most during the past year. The identification of a subset of game types most associated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games and those populations at greatest risk of PVP with the ultimate goal of better understanding, preventing, and treating this contemporary mental health problem. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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