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Diamantopoulou Ir.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Skodras G.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications | Sakellaropoulos G.P.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Sakellaropoulos G.P.,Greek Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2010

The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the mercury removal ability of F400 and Norit FGD activated carbons, through fixed bed adsorption tests at inert atmosphere (Hg° + N2). Additionally, adsorption tests were realized on F400 activated carbon, in the presence of HCl, O2, SO2 and CO2 in nitrogen flow. The obtained results, revealed that F400 activated carbon, with a high-developed micropore structure and increased BET area, exhibit larger Hg° adsorptive capacity compared to Norit. HCl and O2, can strongly affect mercury adsorption, owing to heterogeneous oxidation and chemisorption reactions, which is in accordance with the assumptions of some researchers. Additionally, SO2 presence enhances mercury adsorption, in contrast with the conclusions evaluated in other studies. The above result could be attributed to the possible formation of sulphur spaces on activated carbon surface and consist of a clarification for the role of SO2 on mercury adsorption. On the contrary, the mercury adsorption efficiency of F400 activated carbon showed a decrease at about 25%, with increasing CO2 concentration from 0 to 12%. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Izquierdo M.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications | Izquierdo M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Koukouzas N.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications | Touliou S.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications | And 3 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

The mobility of inorganic pollutants is of key concern for a range of industrial and engineering applications of fly ash produced during the combustion of lignite in power generation. This paper investigates the role that the geochemical features of lignite, the ash composition and the partitioning of elements during combustion play in determining leaching properties of lignite fired by-products. The work is based on surveys on three lignite-fired power plants in Greece. Calcium-rich ashes show a high abatement potential for SO2 and other gaseous pollutants. For most elements, the concentrations in the parent lignite and the ashes follow the same trend. Relative enrichments in Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, U, V, W, Zn fingerprint the regional and local geological settings of the lignite basins. The total and leachable concentrations of highly volatile elements are strongly influenced by the interaction with ubiquitous free lime. A broad array of elements is highly insoluble in alkaline ash, while a few oxyanionic-forming elements display substantial mobility. Their mode of occurrence in the parent lignite plays a primary role in the leaching of combustion ashes. The outcomes of this study may assist in addressing the impact of co-firing high ash or high Ca alternative fuels on the leaching properties of combustion by-products. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Vera D.,University of Jaén | Jurado F.,University of Jaén | Margaritis N.K.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications | Grammelis P.,Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Spain is the first olive oil maker worldwide. Yearly, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of by-products: olive pomace, tree pruning, pits, leaves and branches. This work presents the experimental and feasibility study of a pilot plant for the conversion of olive tree pruning and olive pits into electrical and thermal power. The pilot plant is composed of a downdraft gasifier, gas cooling-cleaning stage and spark ignition engine with a modified carburetor. The experimental results showed satisfactory cold gas efficiency (in the range of 70.7-75.5%) and good lower calorific value of the producer gas for both raw materials (4.8 and 5.4MJkg-1). Moreover, the plant achieved acceptable values for the electric and CHP efficiency: 15% and almost 50%, respectively. Finally, the investment achieved reasonable profitability index with a payback period of 5-6years. As a result, the energy recovery potential from the olive industry wastes may represent a good opportunity to promote distributed generation systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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