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Pavic A.,University of Belgrade | Stankovic S.,University of Belgrade | Saljnikov E.,Institute for Soil science | Kruger D.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 5 more authors.
Fungal Ecology

To test the hypothesis that truffle-associated bacteria may improve truffle nutrition, we isolated bacteria from white truffle ascocarps and tested Actinobacteria for their ability to solubilise phosphate and iron, nutrients that have limited availability in white truffle grounds. Two isolates with sequence similarities to Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens and Rhodococcus sp. were characterized in detail. Both solubilised Ca3(PO4)2 in a way that was dependent on the nitrogen and carbon sources present. Neither strain broke down phytate, but both produced chelating compounds, performed ammonification, and broke down β-glucan. Additionally, C. flaccumfaciens decomposed chitin, pectin, lipids and proteins, while Rhodococcus sp. exhibited urease activity. Three potentially fungicolous fungi were isolated from diseased white truffle ascocarps and bioassayed against the isolated Actinobacteria. The Rhodococcus isolate inhibited Verticillium leptobactrum, neither bacterium affected Clonostachys rosea, while both isolates promoted growth of Trichoderma sp. The results suggest that Actinobacteria might be involved in improving truffle nutrition, ascocarp degradation and establishing relationships with other soil fungi. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. Source

Protic R.,Serbian Institute for Science Application in Agriculture | Todorovic G.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Protic N.,YeKO Laboratory | Delic D.,Institute for Soil science
Romanian Agricultural Research

The research was conducted in field conditions with seven different treatments of seed protection and three winter wheat varieties. The varieties PKB-Christina, Pobeda and Vizija were different according to tillering type, stem height, leaf position, duration of vegetation, genetic potential for grain yield and quality. The micro trial was set up during 2004-2006, using split-plot system with four variants of chemical protection, plus electronic protection of plasma electrons, with positive and negative control. The way of seed protection significantly influenced grain weight per spike. The variety Vizija had significantly less number of grains per spike (39.0) than the varieties Pobeda (39.5) and PKB-Christina (41.4). By comparing grain number per spike from the aspect of applied protection, highly significant difference was proven between control (38.7) and variants being treated with diviconazole and tebuconazole + triazoxine. Highly significant difference was determined between variants treated by fungicides carboxin + tiran and control, then between diviconazole and tebuconazole + triazoxin (41.7) and +c/+control. Fungicide difye{cyrillic}co{cyrillic}na{cyrillic}zo{cyrillic}le showed some influence upon grain number per spike, but that difference was not statistically significant. Plasma electrons treatment was at the level of controls. A highly significant interaction was determined between variety * year * treatment. Source

Popovic T.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Starovic M.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Aleksic G.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Zivkovic S.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | And 3 more authors.
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science

Common bacterial blight (CBB) in beans, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is an economically important disease worldwide which reduces crop yields and seed quality. Since there is no satisfactory chemical control for the disease, the use of resistant cultivars is an important management strategy. Sources of immunity are not yet recognized, but tolerance has been reported in several genetic stocks. The main objective of this study was to determine resistance to CBB on twenty-two local and foreign beans grown in Serbia. Two inoculation methods with Xap (spraying and multiple needles) as well as naturally infected plants in field conditions were taken for evaluation. The experiments were conducted in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Reaction to Xap was assessed as a diseased leaf area and the disease severity index was calculated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for disease ratings of leaf reactions indicated significant interactions between cultivars and lines. Results indicate that none of evaluated beans was immune and was found to be resistant to CBB. HR 45, Oreol and XAN 159, -208, -273 were weakly susceptible; Biser, Dobrudzanski rani, KB 100, -101, Medijana, Naya Nayahit, Panonski gradistanac, Panonski tetovac, and Sremac were susceptible while Balkan, Belko, Dobrudzanski rani 7, Dvadesetica, Galeb, Maksa, Slavonski zutozeleni, and Zlatko were highly susceptible cultivars and lines. The five weakly susceptible can be identified and recommend as possible sources of tolerance in plant breeding program. Source

Kuzmanovic S.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Josic D.,Institute for Soil science | Ivanovic Z.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Popovic T.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Agricultural Research

Grapevine cv. Plovdina is a traditional local variety that is very sensitive to flavescence dorée (FD) disease. In this paper, we present the results of top-grafting FD-infected cv. Plovdina plants with scions originating from healthy mother plants of the same cultivar using the "green grafting" method. The first grapevine yellows (GY) symptoms, consisting of yellowing of the Plovdina leaves, have been observed on scions 20 days after grafting. Our results show that GY symptoms were due to phytoplasma and not the viral infection, since grapevine leafroll associated viruses-1, 2 and 3 (GLRaV-1, 2, 3) could not be detected in the scions. Twenty days after-grafting, phytoplasma FD was detected in all grafted scions. Our results indicate that grapevine cv. Plovdina is very suitable as an indicator plant for Flavescence dorée disease. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Lacatusu R.,Institute for Soil science | Kiselev A.,Science Alum SA | Stroe V.M.,Institute for Soil science | Rizea N.,Institute for Soil science | And 6 more authors.
Revista de Chimie

According the red mud chemical and agrochemical properties evaluated in the previous paper, there were set up two experiments concerning individual types of nutritive red mud composite formulations. Adjuvant materials selected for deep changes in the basic red mud agrochemical properties were: phosphogypsum (PG), sludge from urban biological waste water treatment factories (SWBT), sludge from water softening stage in chemical plants (SWCT), organic compost (OC), marine algae debris (MA), wood sawdust (WSJ, acidic peat (AP) and acidic soil (AaS) from Albota region, Romania. Agrochemical analysis of the adjuvant materials and the first type of nutritive red mud composite materials has shown that adjuvant materials themselves and all formulated composites are conveying a large dowry of mineral salts with neutral (PG, OC and MA), and alkaline (SWBT and SWCT) reaction, containing macro, mezzo and micronutrients at variable concentrations. Satisfactory concentrations of organic carbon have been carried in by SWBT (17%), OC (9.2%) and MA (1-8 %) and most all the adjuvant materials and more than that, enough buffering capacity and nutritive ionic species to sustain the crops growth. In the first type of red mud composite material, theoretical expected changes might accomplish a real conversion of the red mud into a nutritive composite material. But, soluble salts contents ranging from 1.874 to 2.888 mg/100g composite mixture, with dominant molecular species sodium carbonate did lead to rather infertile composite formulations. The second type of red mud composite materials SWBT and MA were replaced by the rich carbon and high power buffering materials as WS, AP and AaS and the ratios adjuvant materials/RM were increased to 700/1000-900/1000. Study of Triticum durum response to this new type of red mud composite has shown a real emerging fertility in these materials and sustainability in plants crop growth. This was an encouraging step toward better balanced formulations. Source

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