Letina S.,Institute for Social Research
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2016
The aim of this study is to explore the network effects of the national and disciplinary community and actor attribute effects on the future performance of scientists in two fields of social sciences in Croatia. Based on the publication data from 1992 to 2012, extracted from three databases, we used the co-authorship network from the period 1992-2001 for the specification of nine structural effects to predict individual performance in the 2002-2012 period. Employing the auto-logistic actor attribute models allowed the inclusion of six actor attributes and the analysis of their effects simultaneously with network effects. The results show that future performance is dependent on the national and disciplinary network both in the psychology field and in the sociology field. When controlling for actor attribute effects, these structural effects play a significant role only in sociology, where activity in the network is a negative predictor and having a tie with an actor who is going to be above average in productivity is a positive predictor of the outcome. Institution type in psychology, age and the previous productivity in sociology are significant actor attribute effects. We used log-odds to demonstrate the probabilities of the outcome for three prototypical egonet structures: open, closed and complex; with different numbers of alters with attribute. Specific directions for future research are identified. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Terry-Mcelrath Y.M.,University of Michigan |
Terry-Mcelrath Y.M.,Institute for Social Research |
O'Malley P.M.,University of Michigan |
Johnston L.D.,University of Michigan
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011
Background: The National Institute on Drug Abuse has called for increased research into the use of physical activity in substance abuse prevention, specifically research into physical activity type and context. Purpose: This paper examines the relationships between (1) secondary school student substance use and (2) exercise in general and school athletic team participation, and examines such relationships over time. Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students were surveyed each year from 1991 to 2009. Substance use measures included past 2-week binge drinking and past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, smokeless tobacco, marijuana, and steroid use. Analyses were conducted during 20092010. Results: Across grades, higher levels of exercise were associated with lower levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Higher levels of athletic team participation were associated with higher levels of smokeless tobacco use and lower levels of cigarette and marijuana use across grades and to higher levels of high school alcohol and steroid use. Exercise helped suppress the undesired relationship between team participation and alcohol use; exercise and athletic team participation worked synergistically in lowering cigarette and marijuana use. Observed relationships were generally stable across time. Conclusions: There appear to be substantive differences between exercise and team sport participation in relation to adolescent substance use. These findings from cross-sectional data suggest that interventions to improve levels of general physical activity should be evaluated to determine if they help delay or reduce substance use among youth in general as well as among student athletes. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Patrick M.E.,Institute for Social Research |
Schulenberg J.E.,University of Michigan
Alcohol Research: Current Reviews | Year: 2013
Because alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence and young adulthood and may have long-term consequences, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study annually assesses various measures of alcohol use among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students. These analyses have found that although alcohol use among these age groups overall has been declining since 1975, levels remain high. Thus, in 2011 about one-quarter of 8th graders, one-half of 10th graders, and almost two-thirds of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol in the month preceding the interview. Binge drinking (i.e., consumption of five or more drinks in a row) was also prevalent. Specific rates of drinking, binge drinking, and getting drunk varied among different student subgroups based on gender and race/ethnicity. The MTF study has also identified numerous factors that influence the risk of alcohol use among adolescents, including parents and peers, school and work, religiosity and community attachment, exercise and sports participation, externalizing behavior and other drug use, risk taking and sensation seeking, well-being, and drinking attitudes and reasons for alcohol use. Drinking during adolescence can have long-term effects on a person's life trajectory. Therefore, these findings have broad implications for prevention and intervention efforts with this population.
Rogstad I.,Institute for Social Research
Journal of Information Technology and Politics | Year: 2016
This paper investigates intermedia agenda setting between old and new media platforms through a study of the Norwegian Twitter and mainstream media agendas. The study tracks top tweets and headline news, asking whether Twitter mainly rehashes mainstream media content or actually produces original content. The study finds that Twitter and mainstream media are consistent on the salience of many issues, but also that Twitter gives attention to issues that are overlooked by mainstream media, such as news about environmental challenges and gender equality. The paper also suggests that Twitter contributes to an expansion of the elite, meaning that it has become an important platform for eloquent and media-savvy people outside the traditional political, economic, or academic elites. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
Karlsen R.,University of Oslo |
Karlsen R.,Institute for Social Research
Journal of Information Technology and Politics | Year: 2013
The article addresses the influence of U.S. online campaign practices on West-European party organizations. The empirical case is the Norwegian Labor Party: To what extent did Labor adopt the online practices of the Obama campaign, and in what sense was the online strategy adapted to fit existing campaign and organizational structures? Based on the diffusion of technology and a hybridization perspective on campaign change, it is suggested that the literature on political parties and the network party model in particular is helpful to understand this process. The findings show that the Norwegian Labor Party was highly influenced by Obama's online campaign and U.S. online practices. However, the practices were adjusted to an existing campaign style and organizational structure. Moreover, an essential part of the online strategy was a thematic network structure that aimed to lower the threshold for participation and thereby engage and activate party members, as well as recruit new members. Hence, U.S. campaign practices diffuse to Norwegian electoral politics, and the adopted U.S. practices are implemented based on the ideals of the network party. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.