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Ghatak A.,Gujarat Institute of Development Research | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC
Journal of Health Management | Year: 2014

In an agrarian economy economic impact of illness acts not only through out of pocket expenditure, but also through loss of labour time and wages at the individual level. Using the information collected from 676 respondents at selected villages in West Bengal from 2009 to 2010, the present paper examines the impact of health on labour supply behaviour and wages. Theoretically the study borrows the idea of nutrition-based efficiency wage hypothesis and builds a conceptual framework based on capability approach. The methodology follows a household production function model. Nutritional dimension of health as indicated by body mass index (BMI) has been found to have a positive and significant impact on labour supply for both the male and female respondents. Age is found to have significantly non-linear impact on labour supply. Hence, public policies to improve the sex and age composition of the households through appropriate channels, that is, health and fertility may be necessary. Finally, the results suggest a revision in the design of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) programme by integrating it with other developmental programmes on health, sanitation and skill development in order to ensure productivity of rural manual labourers. Experience of some other countries like South Africa and Brazil suggests the need to integrate public works programmes with programmes that target health and family welfare issues particularly in the context of rural livelihood. © 2014 Indian Institute of Health Management Research.

Kannan E.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC
Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

India has made tremendous progress in increasing production of staple grains like wheat and rice since the introduction of yield improving technology in the 1960s. A combination of policy measures like subsidization of inputs, output price, external trade and marketing support were introduced to encourage the farmers to produce these important cereals. The Government of India implements the largest food intervention program called public distribution system (PDS) through which primarily foodgrains are distributed at subsidized rate to all eligible households. The eligible households are given ration cards to buy fixed rations of foodgrains. For ensuring long term food security, sufficient amount of foodgrains should be made available domestically in a sustainable manner. The favorable economic conditions are necessary for the agricultural sector to enhance the food production and to keep pace with growing demand for different types of foods.

Nautiyal S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impacts of the transition from wood fuel to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) from energy use and health perspectives along an altitudinal gradient (viz., lower altitude; middle altitude; and higher altitude) of the Central Himalayas. Empirical field study and questionnaire based survey was conducted for obtaining the data. A total of 20 households from each altitude were selected for obtaining reliable information on the actual quantity of fuelwood consumed. Of the 20 households, five households each based on the family size i.e., small families (<4 members), medium (5-8 members) and large (>9 members) from all the altitudinal regions were selected. This was followed by an administration of a questionnaire on the quantity of fuelwood consumed. After the completion of the questionnaire survey, the data was validated using a weighted survey for the randomly selected households for obtaining precise information on the actual quantity of fuelwood consumed. Energy analysis is done with respect to the time spent on fuelwood collection and energy value of burning of per kg of fuelwood. Study indicates that declining biomass requirement from forests contributes significantly towards energy conservation, also has positive impact on human health. Per capita annual energy expenditure on collection of fuelwood is 752 MJ which is higher than any other activity in villages of Central Himalaya. The LPG substitution has contributed to energy saving which is equivalent to 2976-3,742 MJ per capita per year in middle and lower altitudes respectively. In the higher altitude the energy saving is calculated to be about 257 MJ per capita per year. Replacing fuelwood with LPG has made positive impact on society in terms of improving the health while reducing diseases that are caused due to indoor air pollution. © 2013 Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Patil S.K.,UAS | Ramappa K.B.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014

Nitrogenous fertilizers and plant protection chemicals have been universally accepted as an integral part of package of practice for raising Indian agriculture to higher technological plank. The excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers has resulted in higher plant protection chemicals and has further resulted in heavy economic loss. In order to examine different dimensions of economic aspects of selected inputs, a study was carried out in Tungabhadra Project (TBP) area of Karnataka during the year 2011-12 for which multistage random sampling design was employed for a sample size of 90 farmers. The study revealed that the extent of application of insecticides increased from 5413 mL/g a.i/ha to 7338 mL/g a.i/ha, fungicides application from 805 mL/g a.i/ha to 1283 mL/g a.i/ha and weedicides from 4853mL/g a.i/ha to 7625 mL/g a.i/ha from level 1 (upto 50% recommended dose of nitrogen) to level 3(<100% recommended dose of nitrogen), respectively. Further, per acre excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and plant protection chemicals ranged from 24.61kg to 79.08 kg and 1321.37 mL/g active ingredient to 2687.65 mL/g respectively from level 1 to level 3, respectively in paddy cultivation. The estimated economic loss due to excess use of nitrogenous and plant protection chemicals for the TBP area as a whole was Rs. 8618.4 lakhs. Majority of farmers were unaware of recommended dose, quantity of application and illeffects of these inputs. Thus, emphasis must be given for adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) and needs promotion through different extension strategies to minimize the losses.

Ramappa K.B.,Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC | Patil S.K.,UAS
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014

The demand for water among various sectors is increasing due to population growth and economic development, in turn creating competition within sectors. The severity of this issue will have direct impact on water and food security of the country in future. Due to over exploitation of water resources, it has become scarce in many parts of the country. The concerted efforts of the goverment are trying to prolog this situation. Both the Central and State governments have undertaken various programs in water conservation and management successfully from the inception of FYPs in the country. In the course of all these programmes, the country could able to become the largest producer of several mulets and second largest producer of rice and wheat in the world. Among the number of programmes, CADWM, NWDA and WDP were the major programmes for land development and water (resources) conservation and management in the country. Further, among externally assisted water sector projects, World Bank is the primary source followed by ADC, JBIC and Kfw, Germany. Many projects under the external assistance from these sources were completed and few are on-going in many states. All these programmes under water conservation created huge infrastructure and irrigation potential for agriculture and are trying to improve the water and food security situations in the country. In addition, they not only protect and conserve environment but also contribute to livelihood security of rural poor. Therefore, the country still requires continued efforts of the government along with external aids especially in the issues of global climate change and promotion of consumer awareness on water conservation. Government should come up with a new water policy prescribing the role and involvement of individuals, community and government for conservation of water.

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