Institute for Social and Economic Change

Nagarbhavi, India

Institute for Social and Economic Change

Nagarbhavi, India
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Mandal S.K.,Ta Pai Management Institute | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic change
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2011

The present paper aims at measuring energy use efficiency in Indian cement industry and estimating the factors explaining inter-firm variations in energy use efficiency. Within the framework of production theory, data envelopment analysis has been used to measure energy use efficiency. Using firm-level data from electronic PROWESS database for the years 1989-1990 through 2006-2007, the study first estimates energy use efficiency of the firms and then compares the efficiency scores across. Empirical results suggest that there is enough scope for the Indian cement firms to reduce energy uses, though this potential for energy saving varies across firms. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that firms with larger production volume have higher energy efficiency scores and that age of the firms impacts differently on energy use efficiency obtained from two different models. Also, higher quality of labor force associates with higher energy use efficiency. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Narayana M.R.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Telecommunications Policy | Year: 2011

This paper estimates the growth contributions of telecom services by public and private sectors and distinguishes it from the information technology services. Socio-economic determinants of demand for telecom services are estimated for fixed and mobile phones in the framework of a Logit model and using data from a small-household sample survey in India. Estimation results show a significant negative impact of price and a positive impact of income variables; distinguish the importance of social caste, education level, nature of occupation, age of household head and family size between fixed and mobiles phones and offer evidence for substitutability of mobile phones for fixed phones. These results add to the empirical knowledge of socio-economic determinants of telecom demand and have implications for selective design of policies towards promotion of higher demand and attainment of higher economic growth by fixed and mobile services in India and other developing countries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In biodiversity-rich areas, both conservation and socioeconomic development are at the core of discussions among various stakeholders, such as local people, policymakers, conservationists, resource management professionals, economists, researchers/scientists, and so forth. Various innovations are being provided that aim at promoting both improved livelihood for the people and the conservation and management of natural resources in the Central Himalaya of India. Many studies point out the factors responsible for the tremendous decline of natural resources and also how they have affected the local people's livelihood options. In this context, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of various solutions/innovations that are being implemented in the Himalayas of India. Unfortunately, only a few are found to be successful in both conservation and sustainable livelihood development. This study reveals that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them improve their lifestyle, as well as facilitating ecosystem conservation and supporting existing biodiversity. Based on the present study, it is argued that an in-depth empirical study of any region is a necessary process prior to offering solutions to achieve the desired goals, as considered by development agencies and policy-planners. © 2011 Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, United Nations University, and Springer.

Kavitha N.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Journal of Health Management | Year: 2015

This article attempts to study the effect of age of women at birth on the use of maternal health care services separately for urban and rural areas using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3, 2005–2006, India. The indicators of use of maternal health care services used in this study are use of antenatal care services recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (includes three or more antenatal check-ups during the first trimester, two or more tetanus toxoid (TT) injections and taking 100 iron and folic acid tablets during pregnancy), place of delivery, assistance at delivery and use of postnatal care services. At first, the percentage of births that utilized various maternal health care services are discussed separately for urban and rural areas, followed by difference in utilization of maternal health care services between adolescent and adult mothers. Finally, logistic and multinomial regressions are used to examine the influence of age of women at birth on the use of maternal health care services for controlling for other factors. Multivariate results revealed that women who gave birth during adolescence are less likely to use antenatal, natal and postnatal care services in both urban and rural areas. Therefore, efforts should be made to educate parents and other family members on the consequences of early marriage and early pregnancy and also the importance of delaying marriage. © 2015 Indian Institute of Health Management Research.

Narayana M.R.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy | Year: 2016

Background: India’s High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Objective: Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India’s proposed UHC policy. Methods: A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005–2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee–Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Results: Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India’s current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public health expenditures. These new results strengthen the proposed UHC policy by accounting for age structure transition effect and justifying its sustainability within the framework of India’s current fiscal policies. Conclusion: The age structure transition effect is important to incorporate the age-specific cost and benefit of the proposed UHC policy, especially as India moves toward an ageing society. Fiscal sustainability is essential to ensure that the proposed UHC is implementable on a long-term basis and within the framework of current fiscal policies. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Manjunatha A.V.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Shruthy M.K.G.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Ramachandra V.A.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Indian Journal of Marketing | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on the global dairy sector in general, and milk marketing systems in particular. The dairy sector is multifunctional in nature, and contributes to sustainable agricultural development and food security. The global trade is dominated by developed countries, contributing to 62% of the imports and 92% of the exports. Global production and consumption are increasingly imposing pressure to produce and process more, keeping in the mind the aspects of quality and efficiency. The development of dairy markets is affected by access to milk markets and market distortions. Additionally, the development of dairy markets depends on the governments' involvement in regulating production and marketing of milk and milk products. In this regard, comparison of marketing systems across countries considering supply, demand, prices, and trade is important fora clear understanding of the complexities, performance, and challenges in the systems. The analysis indicates that although the production has increased over years in regulated (USA), deregulated (Australia), and informal (India) dominated milk markets, but consumption has increased only in the informal dominated markets. The processing is greater than 90% in Australia and USA, while this is only 18% in India, indicating backwardness of the Indian dairy sector. The farmers' share in consumers' basket is increasing in Australia, decreasing in USA, and is stable in India, representing a higher benefit to producers in deregulated markets and stability of the market in the informal sector dominated market. The milk prices are closer to the world market price in regulated markets as compared to the deregulated and informal markets, signifying higher regulation of production and marketing in USA. The self-sufficiency and performance of the Australian dairy sector is comparatively better because the dairy farms are competing in the international markets. The successful policy interventions in informal markets of Kenya and India indicates that these markets have the potential to improve income and employment, but impose constraints on quality and trade. These issues can be tackled by following an integrated approach in gradual conversion of informal to the formal sector through proper education and training, which has the potential for the overall development of the dairy industry.

Panda A.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Sharma U.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Ninan K.N.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Patt A.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Understanding the factors that give rise to greater or lesser adaptive capacity among households with in a community could allow government interventions to target the right groups of people. In this paper we study such factors, making use of a household survey administered in the Indian state of Odisha. In the survey, we queried respondents for the adaptations that they had engaged in to deal with the risk of drought, as well as a number of indicators for adaptive capacity taken from the literature. We found a large number of indicators of adaptive capacity to correlate with one or more adaptations taken. However, many of these indicators, while increasing the likelihood that one adaptation would be taken, also decreased the likelihood that another would be taken, and hence were not unambiguous determinants of greater adaptive capacity in general. One indicator, access to crop insurance, stood out as particularly effective: it correlated with an increased likelihood of engaging in two separate yield-raising adaptations, and correlated with a decreased likelihood of engaging in two additional adaptations that would have the effect of reducing yields. The results suggest that further attention to crop insurance may be warranted, as well as further research to determine if the other indicators may be effective in other contextual settings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ninan K.N.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Inoue M.,University of Tokyo
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2013

Forests ecosystems provide several intangible benefits which policy makers ignore since these values do not register in conventional markets or are difficult to measure. Drawing on results of a case study of a forest reserve in Japan, this paper suggests that the annual value of the ecosystem services provided by forests is not only worth millions of dollars, but also in per hectare terms much more than hitherto known. This value for the Oku Aizu forest reserve ranged US$ 1.427-1.482 billion or about US$ 17,016-17,671 per ha. If these are accounted for, then governments and societies faced with the development versus conservation dilemma can make more informed decisions and policies that will help conserve forests and the ecosystem services they provide, and thereby promote human well-being and sustainable development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar Mandal S.,Ta Pai Management Institute Tapmi | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of the causal relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the period 1979-80 to 2004-05. The most recently developed panel unit root, a heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction model, is applied within a multivariate framework. The empirical results confirm a positive, long-run cointegrated relationship between output and energy consumption when heterogeneous state effects are taken into account. We also found a long-run, bi-directional relationship between energy consumption and output growth in the Indian cement industry for the study period, implying that an increase in energy consumption directly affects the growth of this sector and that growth stimulates further energy consumption. These empirical findings imply that energy consumption and output are jointly determined and affect each other. The empirical evidence also suggests the implementation of energy conservation policies oriented toward improving energy-use efficiency to avoid any negative impacts of the conservation policies on the growth of this industry. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kumar Mandal S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change | Madheswaran S.,Institute for Social and Economic Change
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

Coal combustion, for the production of cement, generates considerable amount of environmentally detrimental carbon dioxide as an undesirable by-product. Thus, this paper aims at measuring environmental efficiency within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable output using Data Envelopment Analysis and Directional Distance Function. Carbon dioxide is considered as an input in one context and as an undesirable output in the other with the environmental efficiency being defined accordingly. Using 3 digit sate level data from the Annual Survey of Industries for the years 2000-2001 through 2004-2005, the proposed models are applied to estimate environmental efficiency of Indian cement industry. Empirical results show that there is enough potential for the industry to improve its environmental efficiency with efficiency being varied across states. Results also show that Indian cement industry, if faced with environmental regulation, has the potential to expand desirable output and contract undesirable output with the given inputs. However, regulation has a potential cost in terms of lower feasible expansion of desirable output as compared to unregulated scenario. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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