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Onyango C.,Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute | Mutungi C.,TU Dresden | Unbehend G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide | Lindhauer M.G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Sorghum bread was made from native or pregelatinised cassava starch and sorghum flour in the ratio 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50. The other ingredients, measured on flour-weight-basis, were water (100%), sugar (6.7%), egg white (6%), fat (2%), salt (1.7%) and yeast (1.5%). The dynamic oscillatory behaviours of the batters were affected by the amount and type of starch. In the amplitude sweep measurements, increasing concentration of native starch decreased storage modulus, whereas increasing concentration of pregelatinised starch increased the linear viscoelastic range of the batters. In the frequency sweep measurements, the loss factor of batters treated with native starch declined with increasing frequency. Batters treated with 10 or 20% pregelatinised starch showed declining loss factors, whereas batters treated with 40 or 50% pregelatinised starch showed increasing loss factors with increasing frequency. Sorghum-based batters containing native starch gave bread with better crumb properties than batters containing pregelatinised starch. Crumb firmness and chewiness declined with increasing native or pregelatinised starch concentration. Crumb adhesiveness of breads containing pregelatinised starch increased with increasing starch content but was not affected by native starch. Cohesiveness, springiness and resilience increased with increasing native starch content, but were minimally affected by increasing pregelatinised starch content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Onyango C.,Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute | Mutungi C.,TU Dresden | Unbehend G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide | Lindhauer M.G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Gluten-free sorghum bread was made from cassava, maize, potato or rice starch and sorghum in the ratios 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50. The other baking ingredients, on flour-weight-basis, were water (100%), sugar (6.7%), egg white powder (6%), fat (2%), salt (1.7%) and yeast (1.5%). Increasing starch content changed the batters' consistencies from soft doughs to thin pourable batters. Increasing starch content decreased crumb firmness and chewiness, and increased cohesiveness, springiness and resilience of all breads. Cassava-sorghum and rice-sorghum breads had better crumb properties than maize-sorghum or potato-sorghum breads. Although the crumb properties of all breads declined (i.e. firmness and chewiness increased; cohesiveness, resilience and springiness decreased) on storage, the formulation containing 50% cassava starch retained the best overall texture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Onyango C.,Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute | Mutungi C.,TU Dresden | Unbehend G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide | Lindhauer M.G.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Getreide
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The influence of α-amylase (0-0.3 U g-1) on the crumb properties of gluten-free sorghum batter and bread, respectively, was investigated. The formulations were modified using native or pregelatinised cassava starch (i.e. batter A - 17% pregelatinised starch, 83% sorghum, 100% water fwb; batter B - 17% native starch, 83% sorghum, 100% water fwb; and batter C - 30% native starch, 70% sorghum, 80% water fwb). The batters had solid viscoelastic character with the storage modulus predominant over the loss modulus. Storage moduli of batter A decreased with increasing angular frequency, whereas the moduli of batters B and C were independent from the angular frequency. Increasing enzyme concentration did not affect the loss factors of the batters. Batters' resistance to deformation, from highest to lowest, followed the order C > A > B. Increasing enzyme concentration decreased crumb firmness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience and chewiness but increased adhesiveness. Overall, breads containing native starch had better crumb properties (i.e. springier and less firm, chewy and adhesive) than breads containing pregelatinised starch. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

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