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The aim of the study presented was to investigate, how far supplying fattening pigs deficiently with limiting amino acids can increase the intramuscular fat, and what kind of consequences have to be expected regarding fattening performance, carcass composition and further meat quality traits. In total 45 male castrates and 49 females (Piétrain-NN*German Landrace) were randomized to 4 feeding groups: The control group (I) got a diet with demand-oriented contents of amino acids. The other 3 groups were fed in the final fattening phase (starting from about 70 kg live weight) with diets containing insufficient proportions (60% of demand) of lysine (group II), methionine + cystine (group III) or lysine + methionine + cystine (group IV). In general considerable changes only showed up in those two groups (II and IV) provided inadequately with lysine. This conclusion regards in particular group II. Animals of this treatment consumed about 0.4 kg more feed per kg live weight gain than the control pigs, whereas the daily gain decreased - not significantly - by 60 g. Carcasses were fatter, so that the lean content were reduced by 2.5 percentage points. The chemical-physical meat quality traits such as pH value, electrical conductivity and water-holding capacity did not change. The intramuscular fat content showing at two different points of the M. longissimus dorsi and at the M. semimembranosus values of 1.2,1.4 and 2.7%, respectively in the control group, increased only due to the lysine deficit to 2.0, 2.2 and 3.7%, respectively. Moreover in the intramuscular fat the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids rose significantly at the expense of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The described effects however only tended to result in improvements of the sensory evaluation and the instrumentally measured tenderness. Source

Uruguay is ideally suited as an indicator of the globalised meat markets. The main reasons are that a high proportion of the national territory is used for agricultural purposes, there is extreme specialization on pasture economy with beef and sheep due to the climatic conditions, and the fact that the inland market is small, resulting in complete dependency of the economy on exports. The collapse of the international wool market was the key experience for Uruguayan animal production in the last decades of the 20th century. The producers reacted to this with a vast transformation of the production systems, mostly by changing the animal stock. The traditional ratio of sheep to cattle of 3:1, which had until then been expedient in terms of the grazing system dropped to its current level of less than 1:1. Despite the reduced sheep stock, the quantity of profitable lamb meat production and exports did not drop because age and weight at slaughter increased considerably. Additionally, a similar increase in the age of steers guaranteed the full exploitation of the available pasture area. These measures did not compromise the quality level of the final products. In both types of meat, the transformation forced by the world market contributed to a better adaptation of the Uruguayan meat industry to international competition. This led to ongoing diversification of meat cuts, and to an increase in both the degree of processing and added value of the products. Source

The detection of (immediately approaching) death of a slaughter animal is possible by measuring the amount of sticking blood. The following first experiments show, how individual amounts of sticking blood were detected by means of an infrared (IR)-camera. First a gauging was carried out with different amounts of 40 °C hot water. Afterwards, on three different days of slaughter, 165 IR-pictures of the blood collecting vessels were taken. The degree of filling of the blood collecting vessels was clearly detectable on the camera display. The area of the vessel, filled with blood, was yellow to orange, the empty area was violet to blue. By means of the formula y = 1,09 +0,12 x (with R 2 = 0,99), the amounts of blood of the IR-pictures were calculated. The means of blood amounts were, depending on the worker who carried out sticking, 3,5 and 2,9 L. The first value indicates effective sticking, the second value must be evaluated as critical. In this case, not only animal welfare risks must be considered - depending on the stunning method - but also the degree of bleeding out of muscles and offal is poorer. The aim of the technical development in the future must be, to create an automatic system with an IR-camera as detector and a suitable software, which is able to detect a too slow rise of blood level (per time) in the blood collecting vessels and generate appropriate signals. Source

The role of microbiology in meat research has hardly changed since establishing the ReichsanstaLt für Fleischwirtschaft in Berlin (Germany) in 1938. Back then as well as today it consists of research about microbiological security and quality of (non) processed products and research about current problems. Source

The appreciation of sheep meat by the German consumer is low-contrary to lamb meat. This is because it is presumed, sheep meat is mutton (from wether), which may have a strong, unpleasant smell (when cooked) and flavour. Each year, 280000 ewes are no longer used for rearing in Germany. A part of them is slaughtered and utilised inside the country, i.e. by Moslems, but a greater part of these animals isexported alive to third Countries, mainly to Libanon, in the last years. The aim of this examination was to evaluate the quality of sheep meat (from ewes) and improve it by an optimisation of the chilling conditions for the sheep carcasses (1. communication). Moreover, possibilities for utilisation of sheep meat with a high economic potential should be evaluated and pointed out (2. communication). 20 ewes of the breeds Merino and Schwarzköpfiges Fleischschaf were slaughtered. One half of each carcass was fast chilled (+2 °C), the other was conditioned (surroundings temperature for 6 hours, than +2 °C). Meat quality parameters (pH, muscle temperature, sensorial properties, shear values), the microbiological condition of the carcass surfaces as well as the slaughter and cutting yields were estimated. Conditioning of the half carcasses resulted in a distinct acceleration of the pH fall post mortem with the consequence, that Rigor mortis (at about pH 5,9) happened earlier and muscle temperatures, which lead to cold shortening, were avoided. Conditioning did not lead to a higher bacterial load on the carcass surfaces after chilling. Tenderness and flavour of the roasted sheep meat (m. longissimus dorsi) after 3 weeks of ageing was mainly evaluated as "good" and "very good", the shear values were in the range between 20 and 35 Newton which means tender meat. The different chilling conditions had no effect on the sensorial properties and the firmness of the meat. It can be concluded, that an early post mortem higher firmness of meat, caused by cold shortening, can be cancelled by a longer period of ageing. Source

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