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Saint Helena, CA, United States

Joe-Laidler K.,University of Hong Kong | Hunt G.P.,Institute for Scientific Analysis
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy | Year: 2012

The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members' lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members' lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members' lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd.

Antin T.M.J.,1995 University Ave | Hunt G.,Institute for Scientific Analysis
Appetite | Year: 2012

As obesity persists in the United States, many public health interventions have been conceived to encourage people to change their diets. These interventions are based on encouraging people to prioritize healthier alternatives in food choice. However a consideration of the existing but limited literature on food choice for diverse populations renders such an assumption problematic. This qualitative study examined the food choices of a population most at risk for obesity - low-income African American women - by considering psychological factors, social and cultural meanings of foods, and structural conditions that shape how women decide what to eat. Interviews revealed the complexity of their food choices, illustrating the extent to which multiple influences operate simultaneously on food choice decisions. Implications for obesity prevention are discussed, in particular highlighting the problem that some types of public health interventions do not correspond to the lived experiences of the populations they intend to target. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Moloney M.,Institute for Scientific Analysis | Hunt G.P.,Institute for Scientific Analysis
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy | Year: 2012

Based on 250 qualitative interviews with Asian American young men and women in the dance/club scenes in the San Francisco area, we examine the interplay between consumption, style and taste cultures with issues of ethnic identity, gender and acculturation. We explore the ways that consumption and taste markers (e.g. fashion, cars, music and drugs) are used to establish or negotiate symbolic boundaries between groups in this youth culture. The picture they paint of the dance scene is one less about cohesiveness and unity and more about divisions and boundaries, not only between but also significantly within ethnic groupings. The choice of drugs and ways of exhibiting intoxication are among the types of consumption that the young people drew upon to mark symbolic boundaries and establish identities. The young men and women in this study discuss a number of key boundaries in the scene, e.g. between FOBs and twinkies, between pretty boys and thugs, as they attempt to establish the cultural legitimacy of their own styles of Asian American identities. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd.

Antin T.M.J.,Prevention Research Center | Hunt G.,Institute for Scientific Analysis
Critical Public Health | Year: 2013

Since the turn of the century, obesity has emerged in the public consciousness as an important public health concern. While the illnesses considered to be associated with obesity are pressing, related individual-level interventions may not be sufficient and may also stigmatize overweight and obese individuals as deficient. Weight-related stigma has a more significant impact on body image for women than men, though the majority of research on African American women suggests that they are culturally protected from body weight dissatisfaction. This article reports on the analysis of 20 interviews with African American women to help elucidate the complicated narratives of body image in women's lives. Implications for obesity and body image research are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Stockwell T.,University of Victoria | Stockwell T.,Curtin University Australia | Zhao J.,University of Victoria | Panwar S.,Institute for Scientific Analysis | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs | Year: 2016

Objective: Previous meta-analyses of cohort studies indicate a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and allcause mortality, with reduced risk for low-volume drinkers. However, low-volume drinkers may appear healthy only because the “abstainers” with whom they are compared are biased toward ill health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether misclassifying former and occasional drinkers as abstainers and other potentially confounding study characteristics underlie observed positive health outcomes for lowvolume drinkers in prospective studies of all-cause mortality. Method: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of studies investigating alcohol use and mortality risk after controlling for quality-related study characteristics was conducted in a population of 3,998,626 individuals, among whom 367,103 deaths were recorded. Results: Without adjustment, meta-analysis of all 87 included studies replicated the classic J-shaped curve, with low-volume drinkers (1.3–24.9 g ethanol per day) having reduced mortality risk (RR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.83, 0.90]). Occasional drinkers (<1.3 g per day) had similar mortality risk (RR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.79, 0.89]), and former drinkers had elevated risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.14, 1.31]). After adjustment for abstainer biases and quality-related study characteristics, no significant reduction in mortality risk was observed for low-volume drinkers (RR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.88, 1.07]). Analyses of higher-quality bias-free studies also failed to find reduced mortality risk for low-volume alcohol drinkers. Risk estimates for occasional drinkers were similar to those for low- and medium-volume drinkers. Conclusions: Estimates of mortality risk from alcohol are significantly altered by study design and characteristics. Meta-analyses adjusting for these factors find that low-volume alcohol consumption has no net mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention or occasional drinking. These findings have implications for public policy, the formulation of low-risk drinking guidelines, and future research on alcohol and health. © 2016, Alcohol Research Documentation Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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