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Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy | Pandit C.M.,Central Water Commission
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2016

This article discusses the bias of the growing constituency of civil society activists in India against conventional water management solutions implemented by the government, and the ‘alternatives’ they champion, which force the government to enter into an endless debate with these groups. The article goes into the fundamental reasons for this bias, and identifies four types of civil society activist: ‘professional’, ‘ideologue’, ‘romantic’ and ‘doomsday prophet’. The article also argues that water bureaucracies in India should adopt evidence-based policy making, subjecting the ‘alternatives’ to the same degree of scrutiny as the conventional ones, to end the policy dilemma, while enhancing the overall quality of design, execution and management of projects for better outcomes. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy | Scott C.A.,University of Arizona | Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2013

This paper provides empirical evidence that power tariff reform with pro rata pricing and higher unit rates for electricity not only would promote equity, efficiency and sustainability in groundwater use, but also would be socio-economically viable for small-holder farmers. It shows that the arguments of "high transaction cost" and "political infeasibility" used against metering are valid only in specific regional contexts and under increasingly outmoded power-pricing and agricultural-production regimes, if one considers the recent advancements in remote sensing and the facts that overexploited regions have a low density of wells and are mostly owned by farmers who constitute a small segment of the farming community. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy | Scott C.A.,University of Arizona | Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011

India's farm sector sustains livelihoods for hundreds of millions of rural people, but faces serious management challenges for land, water, and energy resources. Growing dependence on groundwater threatens water resources sustainability and power sector viability. Sustaining India's rising prosperity rests on managing groundwater. This study shows that raising power tariffs in the farm sector to achieve efficiency and sustainability of groundwater use is both socially and economically viable. The question is about how to introduce this shift. This paper discusses five different options for power supply, metering and energy pricing in the farm sector and the expected outcomes of implementing each vis-a-vis efficiency of groundwater and energy use, equity in access and sustainability of groundwater. It concludes that establishing an energy quota for each farm-based on sustainability considerations, and metering and charging pro rata for power used are the best options to manage groundwater and the energy economy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mukherjee S.,National Institute of Public Finance and Policy NIPFP | Shah Z.,University of Cambridge | Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

Urban water demand is rapidly growing in India due to high growth in urban population and rapid industrialization. Meeting this demand is a big challenge for the urban planners in India. Incidentally, the large urban areas are experiencing faster growth in population, and most of them are in arid and semi arid regions, which are naturally water-scarce. As a result, water supplies from local water resources including aquifers are falling far short of the high and concentrated demands in most urban areas. Under such situations, these large cities have to rely on distant large reservoirs. The analysis of 302 urban centers shows that cities with larger population size have much higher level of dependence on surface water sources. Also, greater the share of surface water in the city water supplies, higher was the level of per capita water supply. Multiple regression models are estimated for Class I cities and Class II towns in India. The results show that Population Elasticity of Water Supply (PEWS) change with time and space-for Class I cities it was 1.127 in 1988, whereas that with respect to 1999 population is 1.289. It also shows that Class I cities have better water supply (PEWS is 1.127 in 1988 and 1.289 in 1999) than Class II towns (PEWS is 0.396 in 1988 and 0.675 in 1999). Given the structure and pattern of urban population growth, economic conditions and water demands, large reservoirs will have a much bigger role in meeting urban water supply needs. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy | Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Sivamohan M.V.K.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy
Water International | Year: 2010

The current study shows that the recent diesel price hike had an insignificant impact on irrigation costs incurred by diesel well owners in eastern India. Further, analysis of the farming enterprises of diesel well owners and water buyers from both diesel and electric wells confronted with a differential cost of irrigation water showed that farmers would be able to cope with a very high rise in irrigation costs through irrigation efficiency improvements and allocating more area to crops that give higher returns per unit of land and water. By doing this, they are able to maintain the farm returns. © 2010 International Water Resources Association. Source

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