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Schubert J.,Institute for Biosafety in Plant Biotechnology | Habekuss A.,Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance | Wu B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Thieme T.,BTL Bio Test Labor GmbH Sagerheide | Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Virus Genes

Recently, the importance of the Geminiviruses infecting cereal crops has been appreciated, and they are now being studied in detail. Barley and wheat strains of Wheat dwarf virus are recorded in most European countries. Information on complete sequences of isolates from the United Kingdom, Spain, and Austria are reported here for the first time. Analysis revealed that their sequences are very stable. Recombination between strains was recorded only for the barley strain. We identified several defective forms of the barley strain from barley and wheat, which do not influence symptom expression. Sequences of barley isolates infecting wheat were obtained that did not differ from the isolates from barley. Based on specific features of the SIR of the barley strains, it is suggested that they are assigned to one of the two proposed new clusters, A1 or A2. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Gardiner S.E.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Norelli J.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Silva N.D.,Auckland Mail Center | Fazio G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 13 more authors.
BMC Genetics

Background: Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus 'Robusta 5'. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases.Results: When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with 'Robusta 5' as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand 'Malling 9' X 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German 'Idared' X 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US 'Otawa3' X 'Robusta5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations.Conclusions: The results suggest that the upper region of 'Robusta 5' linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance. © 2012 Gardiner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Adoukonou-Sagbadja H.,Justus Liebig University | Adoukonou-Sagbadja H.,University Abomey Calavi | Wagner C.,Justus Liebig University | Ordon F.,Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance | Friedt W.,Justus Liebig University
Tropical Plant Biology

Fonio millets (Digitaria exilis, D. iburua) are minor but important indigenous cereals in the semiarid areas of West-Africa. Recent interest in breeding strategies for these crops requires a better understanding of their biology and genetics. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed to assess the phylogenetic relationships among cultivated fonio species and some polyploid wild relatives and examine proposed hypotheses on fonio ancestry. The AFLP analysis was found quite suitable for identifying each species. A very strong genetic affinity (over 92% similarity) was detected between the wild D. longiflora and D. ternata and the cultivated D. exilis and D. iburua, respectively. These data provided additional molecular evidence supporting the previous view of direct domestication of fonio millets from these two wild species. High genetic divergences were expectedly found between fonio species and the other taxonomically distant Digitaria taxa investigated. The results also revealed D. ciliaris and D. sanguinalis as separate species sharing close ancestry. Selfing experiments and subsequent progeny analyses using three isozymes supplemented by AFLPs were further conducted to determine the reproductive system in fonio millets. The results revealed apomixis as absolute mode of reproduction of these crops, except D. exilis in which 2% residual sexuality was detected. Additional data documented on seed set and pollen viability suggested that apomixis in fonio would be of pseudogamous type. The data also revealed fonio crops as highly self-compatible and of allopolyploid origin. This study adds new information about the reproductive system and the evolution of fonio, contributing to the knowledge on their biology, and thus providing useful subsides for future genetic improvement of these valuable crops. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Wu B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Schubert J.,Institute for Biosafety in Plant Biotechnology | Habekuss A.,Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports

Genetic diversity and recombination patterns were evaluated for 229 isolates of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), which are important cereal-infecting geminiviruses. Recombination hot spots were concentrated at the boundary of the genes encoding for the replication protein (Rep), the coat protein (cp) and the movement protein (mp), as well as inside Rep and cp and in the short intergenic regions (SIR). Phylogenomic analyses confirmed that the global population of WDV clustered into two groups according to their specific host: wheat and barley, and the crucial regions for the division of two groups were mp and the large intergenic regions (LIR). The computationally inferred pattern of coevolution between amino acid residues and the predicted 3D structure for the viral proteins provided further differences among the strains or species at the genome and protein level. Pervasive interaction between Rep and Rep A proteins in WDV-wheat-specific group reflected their important and complex function in the replication and transcription of WDV. Furthermore, significant predicted interactions between CP and Rep and CP and Rep A proteins in the WDV-wheat-specific group are thought to be crucial for successful encapsidation and movement of the virus during infection. Source

Kassa M.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kassa M.T.,National Research Council Canada | Haas S.,Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance | Schliephake E.,Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance | And 22 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Key message: SNP markers were developed for the OWBM resistance geneSm1that will be useful for MAS. The wheatSm1region is collinear with an inverted syntenic interval inB. distachyon. Abstract: Orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM, Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin) is an important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many growing regions. Sm1 is the only described OWBM resistance gene and is the foundation of managing OWBM through host genetics. Sm1 was previously mapped to wheat chromosome arm 2BS relative to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the dominant, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker WM1. The objectives of this research were to saturate the Sm1 region with markers, develop improved markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), and examine the synteny between wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, and rice (Oryza sativa) in the Sm1 region. The present study mapped Sm1 in four populations relative to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SSRs, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers, single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), and the SCAR WM1. Numerous high quality SNP assays were designed that mapped near Sm1. BLAST delineated the syntenic intervals in B. distachyon and rice using gene-based SNPs as query sequences. The Sm1 region in wheat was inverted relative to B. distachyon and rice, which suggests a chromosomal rearrangement within the Triticeae lineage. Seven SNPs were tested on a collection of wheat lines known to carry Sm1 and not to carry Sm1. Sm1-flanking SNPs were identified that were useful for predicting the presence or absence of Sm1 based upon haplotype. These SNPs will be a major improvement for MAS of Sm1 in wheat breeding programs. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Source

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