Torre del Greco, Italy
Torre del Greco, Italy

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Scalici M.,Third University of Rome | Traversetti L.,Third University of Rome | Spani F.,Third University of Rome | Malafoglia V.,Third University of Rome | And 7 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2017

Investigations on asymmetries showed that deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry are interpreted as environmental changes inducing developmental instability. Since morphological abnormalities increase with pollution, deformations may be considered indicators of the organism exposition to pollution. Therefore, the onset of asymmetry in otherwise normally symmetrical traits has been used as a measure of some stresses as well. In this context, we studied how marine pollution affects the valve morphological alterations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. We used 180 specimens (30 per site) from the aquaculture area of Goro (River Po delta, northern Adriatic Sea), translocated, and released within 50 × 50 × 50 cm cages in five sites: two disturbed and one undisturbed near Naples (eastern Tyrrhenian Sea), and one disturbed and one undisturbed near Siracusa (western Ionian Sea). Disturbed sites were stressed by heavy industrialization and heavy tankers traffic of crude and refined oil, and were defined basing on sediment contamination. In particular, by the cone-beam computed tomography we obtained 3D virtual valve surfaces to be analyzed by the geometric morphometric techniques. Specifically, we focused the levels of the shell shape fluctuating asymmetry in relation to the degrees of marine pollution in different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Mahalanobis distances (interpreted as proxy of the individual shape asymmetry deviation from the mean asymmetry) significantly regressed with the sediment contamination gradient. Indeed, although the left–right differences were normally distributed in each studied site, the individual asymmetry scores (IAS) significantly varied amongst the investigated sites. IAS showed higher values in disturbed areas than those of undisturbed ones in both Tyrrhenian and Ionian Sea. Our results are consistent with past studies on molluscans and other taxa, demonstrating some detrimental effects of chemicals on organisms, although the investigated morphological marker did not discriminate the real disturbance source. Our findings indicate that the mussels act as a prognostic tool for sea pollution levels driving detrimental effects on benthic community. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Maremmani I.,University of Pisa | Gerra G.,Drug Prevention and Health Branch | Ripamonti I.C.,Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Mugelli A.,University of Florence | And 9 more authors.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2015

Opioids are drugs of reference for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Their proper use and a periodic assessment of the patient are crucial to prevent misuse. A multidisciplinary group suggests strategies for all stakeholders involved in the management of pain and suggests the importance of the doctorpatient relationship.


Lauro F.,San Raffaele Rome S.r.l. | Giancotti L.A.,San Raffaele Rome S.r.l. | Ilari S.,San Raffaele Rome S.r.l. | Dagostino C.,University of Parma | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase. Nitration of this protein is intimately linked to inactivation of its biological function and resulting increase of glutamate levels in the spinal cord. Administration of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (5-50 mg/kg) attenuated tolerance development. This effect was accompanied by reduction of superoxide and malondialdehyde production, prevention of GS nitration, re-establishment of its activity and of glutamate levels. Our studies confirmed the main role of free radicals during the cascade of events induced by prolonged morphine treatment and the co-administration of natural derivatives antioxidant such as Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction can be an important therapeutic approach to restore opioids analgesic efficacy. © 2016 Lauro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Cargnin S.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Magnani F.,Institute for Research on Pain | Viana M.,National Science Foundation | Tassorelli C.,National Science Foundation | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2013

Genetic variation in the COMT gene is thought to have clinical implications for pain perception and pain treatment. In the present study, we first evaluated the association between COMT rs4680 and the analgesic response to intrathecal morphine in patients with chronic low back pain to provide confirmation of previously reported positive findings. Next, we assessed the relationship between rs4680 and headache response to triptans in 2 independent cohorts of migraine patients. In patients with chronic low back pain (n = 74), logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR]:.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]:.85-.96, P =.002) and the presence of the COMT Met allele (vs Val/Val, OR:.21, 95% CI:.04-.98, P =.048) were predictive factors for lower risk of poor analgesic response to intrathecal morphine. Intriguingly, in migraine patients, the COMT rs4680 polymorphism influenced headache response to triptans in the opposite direction. Indeed, in an exploratory cohort of migraine patients without aura (n = 75), homozygous carriers of the COMT 158Met allele were found at increased risk to be poor responders to frovatriptan when compared to homozygous patients for the Val allele (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 1.25-21.57, P =.023). In the validation cohort of migraine patients treated with triptans other than frovatriptan (n = 123), logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that use of prophylactic medications (OR:.43, 95% CI:.19-.99, P =.048) and COMT Met/Met genotype (vs Val/Val, OR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.10-16.71, P =.036) were independent risk factors for poor response to triptans. Perspective: This study highlights the importance of COMT rs4680 in influencing the clinical response to drugs used for chronic pain, including opioid analgesics and triptans. These findings also underline a complex relationship between COMT genotypes and pain responder status. © 2013 by the American Pain Society.


Gigliuto C.,University of Pavia | De Gregori M.,Pain Therapy Service | Malafoglia V.,Institute for Research on Pain | Raffaeli W.,Institute for Research on Pain | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Pain Research | Year: 2014

In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal-dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. © 2014 Gigliuto et al.


Scalici M.,Third University of Rome | Traversetti L.,Third University of Rome | Spani F.,Third University of Rome | Bravi R.,Third University of Rome | And 4 more authors.
Aquatic Living Resources | Year: 2016

Noninvasive methods in shell shape variation may help to understand evolution, ecology, stress and role of molluscan in aquatic ecosystems. Imaging analysis is a suitable diagnostic tool in morphological studies to (1) evaluate the health status of investigated animals, and (2) monitor sea coastal habitats. We introduce the feasibility of the cone-beam computed tomography as an optimal technique for 3D surface scanning to obtain virtual valve surfaces of Mytilus galloprovincialis, and analyze them exploiting the geometric morphometric facilities. Statistical output revealed morphological difference between mussels coming from different extensive rearing systems highlighting how the entire valve surface contributed to discriminate between groups when we compared 2- and 3D analyses. Many factors drive the morphological differences observed in the valve shape variation between the two sites, such as geographical genetic differentiation, natural environmental effects and culture conditions. The simplicity of the proposed methodology avoids damage and handling of individuals, makes this approach useful for morphological data collection, and helps to detect detrimental agents for sea ecosystems by using molluscans. © EDP Sciences 2016.


Malafoglia V.,Temple University | Malafoglia V.,Institute for Research on Pain | Colasanti M.,Third University of Rome | Raffaeli W.,Institute for Research on Pain | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2014

Exposing tissues to extreme high or low temperature leads to burns. Burned animals sustain several types of damage, from the disruption of the tissue to degeneration of axons projecting through muscle and skin. Such damage causes pain due to both inflammation and axonal degeneration (neuropathic-like pain). Thus, the approach to cure and alleviate the symptoms of burns must be twofold: rebuilding the tissue that has been destroyed and alleviating the pain derived from the burns. While tissue regeneration techniques have been developed, less is known on the treatment of the induced pain. Thus, appropriate animal models are necessary for the development of the best treatment for pain induced in burned tissues. We have developed a methodology in the zebrafish aimed to produce a new animal model for the study of pain induced by burns. Here, we show that two events linked to the onset of burn-induced inflammation and neuropathic-like pain in mammals, degeneration of axons innervating the affected tissues and over-expression of specific genes in sensory tissues, are conserved from zebrafish to mammals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Malafoglia V.,Temple University | Bryant B.,Monell Chemical Senses Center | Raffaeli W.,Institute for Research on Pain | Giordano A.,Temple University | Bellipanni G.,Temple University
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2013

Nociception is the sensory mechanism used to detect cues that can harm an organism. The understanding of the neural networks and molecular controls of the reception of pain remains an ongoing challenge for biologists. While we have made significant progress in identifying a number of molecules and pathways that are involved in transduction of noxious stimuli, from the skin through the sensory receptor cell and from this to the spinal cord on into the central nervous system, we still lack a clear understanding of the perceptual processes, the responses to pain and the regulation of pain perception. Mice and rat animal models have been extensively used for nociception studies. However, the study of pain and noiception in these organisms can be rather laborious, costly and time consuming. Conversely, the use of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans may be affected by the large evolutionary distance between these animals and humans. We outline here the reasons why zebrafish presents a new and attractive model for studying pain reception and responses and the most interesting findings in the study of nociception that have been obtained using the zebrafish model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Raffaeli W.,Institute for Research on Pain | Minella C.E.,Pain Therapy Unit | Magnani F.,Infermi Hospital | Sarti D.,Infermi Hospital
Journal of Pain Research | Year: 2013

Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is still an underestimated complication of stroke, resulting in impaired quality of life and, in addition to the functional and cognitive consequences of stroke, the presence of CPSP may be associated with mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This type of pain may also impair activities of daily living and further worsen quality of life, negatively influencing the rehabilitation process. The prevalence of CSPS in the literature is highly variable (1%-12%) according to different studies, and this variability could be influenced by selection criteria and the different ethnic populations being investigated. With this scenario in mind, we performed a population-based study to assess the prevalence of CPSP and its main features in a homogeneous health district (Rimini, Italy), including five hospitals for a total population of 329,970 inhabitants. From 2008 to 2010, we selected 1,494 post-stroke patients and were able to interview 660 patients, 66 (11%) of whom reported pain with related tactile and thermal hyperesthesia, accompanied by needle puncture, tingling, swelling, and pressure sensations. Patients reported motor impairment and disability, which influenced their working ability, rehabilitation, and social life. Despite this severe pain state, there was a high percentage of patients who did not receive adequate treatment for pain. © 2013 Raffaeli et al.


PubMed | Institute for Research on Pain
Type: | Journal: Journal of pain research | Year: 2013

Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is still an underestimated complication of stroke, resulting in impaired quality of life and, in addition to the functional and cognitive consequences of stroke, the presence of CPSP may be associated with mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This type of pain may also impair activities of daily living and further worsen quality of life, negatively influencing the rehabilitation process. The prevalence of CSPS in the literature is highly variable (1%-12%) according to different studies, and this variability could be influenced by selection criteria and the different ethnic populations being investigated. With this scenario in mind, we performed a population-based study to assess the prevalence of CPSP and its main features in a homogeneous health district (Rimini, Italy), including five hospitals for a total population of 329,970 inhabitants. From 2008 to 2010, we selected 1,494 post-stroke patients and were able to interview 660 patients, 66 (11%) of whom reported pain with related tactile and thermal hyperesthesia, accompanied by needle puncture, tingling, swelling, and pressure sensations. Patients reported motor impairment and disability, which influenced their working ability, rehabilitation, and social life. Despite this severe pain state, there was a high percentage of patients who did not receive adequate treatment for pain.

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