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Mullen M.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Olson K.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Dallaire P.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | Major F.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

Tandem stretches of guanines can associate in hydrogen-bonded arrays to form G-quadruplexes, which are stabilized by K+ ions. Using computational methods, we searched for G-Quadruplex Sequence (GQS) patterns in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. We found ∼1200 GQS with a G3 repeat sequence motif, most of which are located in the intergenic region. Using a Markov modeled genome, we determined that GQS are significantly underrepresented in the genome. Additionally, we found ∼43000 GQS with a G2 repeat sequence motif; notably, 80 of these were located in genic regions, suggesting that these sequences may fold at the RNA level. Gene Ontology functional analysis revealed that GQS are overrepresented in genes encoding proteins of certain functional categories, including enzyme activity. Conversely, GQS are underrepresented in other categories of genes, notably those for non-coding RNAs such as tRNAs and rRNAs. We also find that genes that are differentially regulated by drought are significantly more likely to contain a GQS. CD-detected K+ titrations performed on representative RNAs verified formation of quadruplexes at physiological K+ concentrations. Overall, this study indicates that GQS are present at unique locations in Arabidopsis and that folding of RNA GQS may play important roles in regulating gene expression. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Saha M.,University of Vermont | Carriere A.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | Carriere A.,University of Montreal | Carriere A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2012

The extent and duration of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling govern a diversity of normal and aberrant cellular outcomes. Genetic and pharmacological disruption of the MAPK-activated kinase RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) leads to elevated MAPK activity indicative of a RSK-dependent negative feedback loop. Using biochemical, pharmacological and quantitative MS approaches we show that RSK phosphorylates the Ras activator SOS1 (Son of Sevenless homologue 1) in cultured cells on two C-terminal residues, Ser1134 and Ser1161. Furthermore, we find that RSK-dependent SOS1 phosphorylation creates 14-3-3-binding sites. We show that mutating Ser 1134 and Ser1161 disrupts 14-3-3 binding and modestly increases and extends MAPK activation. Together these data suggest that one mechanism whereby RSK negatively regulates MAPK activation is via site-specific SOS1 phosphorylation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society. Source

Dieude M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum | Dieude M.,Canadian National Transplantation Research Program | Bell C.,Canadian National Transplantation Research Program | Bell C.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | And 39 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Autoantibodies to components of apoptotic cells, such as anti-perlecan antibodies, contribute to rejection in organ transplant recipients. However, mechanisms of immunization to apoptotic components remain largely uncharacterized. We used large-scale proteomics, with validation by electron microscopy and biochemical methods, to compare the protein profiles of apoptotic bodies and apoptotic exosome-like vesicles, smaller extracellular vesicles released by endothelial cells downstream of caspase-3 activation. We identified apoptotic exosome-like vesicles as a central trigger for production of anti-perlecan antibodies and acceleration of rejection. Unlike apoptotic bodies, apoptotic exosome-like vesicles triggered the production of anti-perlecan antibodies in naïve mice and enhanced anti-perlecan antibody production and allograft inflammation in mice transplanted with an MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-incompatible aortic graft. The 20S proteasome core was active within apoptotic exosome-like vesicles and controlled their immunogenic activity. Finally, we showed that proteasome activity in circulating exosome-like vesicles increased after vascular injury in mice. These findings open new avenues for predicting and controlling maladaptive humoral responses to apoptotic cell components that enhance the risk of rejection after transplantation. Source

Robellet X.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | Robellet X.,University of Montreal | Thattikota Y.,Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer IRIC | Thattikota Y.,University of Montreal | And 11 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2015

The initiation of chromosome morphogenesis marks the beginning of mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Although many effectors of chromatin compaction have been reported, the nature and design of the essential trigger for global chromosome assembly remain unknown. Here we reveal the identity of the core mechanism responsible for chromosome morphogenesis in early mitosis. We show that the unique sensitivity of the chromosome condensation machinery for the kinase activity of Cdk1 acts as a major driving force for the compaction of chromatin at mitotic entry. This sensitivity is imparted by multisite phosphorylation of a conserved chromatinbinding sensor, the Smc4 protein. The multisite phosphorylation of this sensor integrates the activation state of Cdk1 with the dynamic binding of the condensation machinery to chromatin. Abrogation of this event leads to chromosome segregation defects and lethality, while moderate reduction reveals the existence of a novel chromatin transition state specific to mitosis, the intertwist configuration. Collectively, our results identify the mechanistic basis governing chromosome morphogenesis in early mitosis and how distinct chromatin compaction states can be established via specific thresholds of Cdk1 kinase activity. © 2015 Robellet et al. Source

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