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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP.2010.4.0-5 | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2011

Europe must use water more efficiently to avoid the anticipated impacts of water shortage driven by a range of dynamics incl. climate change. Nanotechnologies, materials and process innovations (NMP) are key enabling technologies for efficient industrial water management. The chemical industry has a unique role as major water user AND a key solution provider for the development of future water technologies. ChemWater will coordinate EU strategies across and beyond ETPs on sustainable materials, technologies and process development in the chemical and water industries, with the final objective to integrating and exploiting NMP knowledge and technologies addressing the emerging global challenge of sustainable industrial water management. The ChemWater workplan will deliver: Cross-sectoral synergies between key stakeholders (i.e. ETPs, NoEs, ERA-NETs) drawing on knowledge from chemical processes and water technologies. A long term 2050 vision and strategy on technologies and process developments enabling efficient industrial water management that integrates across sectors disciplines and engages the necessary resources and relevant stakeholders. A Joint implementation Action Plan addressing NMP research needs, skills needs, business development opportunities. Specification of those elements and mechanisms required to ensure the rapid uptake and commercialization of enhanced materials, and processes contributing to optimized industrial water management. Establishment and implementation of an effective dissemination strategy to ensure the communication not only of the project objectives and action plans but also best practices, methodologies and common long term strategies. ChemWater provides an opportunity, to promote progressive science-based industry, foster a sustainable European supply industry, contributing to meet the water needs of society and having the potential to provide Europe with a leading position in the growing global NMP-Water market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.2.4 | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2014

The objective of the HELMETH project is the proof of concept of a highly efficient Power-to-Gas (P2G) technology with methane as a chemical storage and by thermally integrating high temperature electrolysis (SOEC technology) with methanation. This thermal integration balancing the exothermal and endothermal processes is an innovation with a high potential for a most energy-efficient storage solution for renewable electricity, without any practical capacity and duration limitation, since it provides SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) as a product, which is fully compatible with the existing pipeline network and storage infrastructure. The realisation of the P2G technology as proposed within HELMETH needs several development steps and HELMETH focuses on two main technical and socio-economic objectives, which have to be met in order to show the feasibility of the technology: Elaboration of the conditions / scenarios for an economic feasibility of the P2G process towards methane as chemical storage, without significantly deteriorating the CO2-balance of the renewable electricity. Demonstration of the technical feasibility of a conversion efficiency > 85 % from renewable electricity to methane, which is superior to the efficiency for the generation of hydrogen via conventional water electrolysis. Within HELMETH the main focus lies in the development of a complete pressurized P2G module consisting of a pressurized steam electrolyser module, which is thermally integrated with an optimized carbon dioxide methanation module. The HELMETH project will prove and demonstrate that: the conversion of renewable electricity into a storable hydrocarbon by high-temperature electrolysis is a feasible option, high temperature electrolysis and methanation can be coupled and thermally integrated towards highest conversion efficiencies by utilizing the process heat of the exothermal methanation reaction in the high temperature electrolysis process.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 8.31M | Year: 2010

The project concept is to combine nanoreactor technology with multisite solid catalyst design to achieve a safer, cleaner and intensified chemical production. The project ideas are the following: (i) From micro- to nano-reactors. Actual microreactor have channels of micrometric size. We will develop a new concept based on the use of nanometric size channels. (ii) Vectorial pathway for multisite catalytic reactions. A limit in cascade (or domino) reactions is that there is no possibility to control the sequence of reactions of transformation of a reactant in a multisite catalyst. The concept of vectorial pathway for multisite catalytic reactions is based on the idea of an ordered sequence of catalytic sites along the axial direction of the channels of a membrane, in order to control the sequence of transformation. (iii) Dynamic nanoreactor. The concept of dynamic nanoreactor is based on the transient generation of toxic reactants inside the nanoreactor and the immediate conversion, in order to eliminate the storage of these reactants (which is minimized, but not eliminated in on-site or on-demand approaches). The project concept is that the implementation of innovative and safer pathways for sustainable chemical production requires making a step forward in the development of catalyst-reactor design along the lines indicated above. The project applies above ideas to three reactions of synthesis of large-volume chemicals which are relevant example of innovative pathways for sustainable chemical production: (1) direct synthesis of H2O2, (2) PO synthesis with in-situ generated H2O2 and (3) solvent-free synthesis of DPC with in-situ transient generation of phosgene. The consortium has a clear industrial leadership, with sixth major companies and two SMEs, and four academic partners, plus the participation of the durable institution of the NoE IDECAT.

Lanzafame P.,Institute for Research In Catalysis | Centi G.,Institute for Research In Catalysis | Perathoner S.,Institute for Research In Catalysis
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The use of biomass, bio-waste and CO2 derived raw materials, the latter synthesized using H2 produced using renewable energy sources, opens new scenarios to develop a sustainable and low carbon chemical production, particularly in regions such as Europe lacking in other resources. This tutorial review discusses first this new scenario with the aim to point out, between the different possible options, those more relevant to enable this new future scenario for the chemical production, commenting in particular the different drivers (economic, technological and strategic, environmental and sustainability and socio-political) which guide the selection. The case of the use of non-fossil fuel based raw materials for the sustainable production of light olefins is discussed in more detail, but the production of other olefins and polyolefins, of drop-in intermediates and other platform molecules are also analysed. The final part discusses the role of catalysis in establishing this new scenario, summarizing the development of catalysts with respect to industrial targets, for (i) the production of light olefins by catalytic dehydration of ethanol and by CO2 conversion via FTO process, (ii) the catalytic synthesis of butadiene from ethanol, butanol and butanediols, and (iii) the catalytic synthesis of HMF and its conversion to 2,5-FDCA, adipic acid, caprolactam and 1,6-hexanediol. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Goerigk G.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Goerigk G.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Varga Z.,Institute for Research In Catalysis
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2011

After the KWS-3 instrument was moved from Jülich to Munich (in the first half of 2007), it underwent a fundamental evaluation, with the final result that a major upgrade for the whole instrument became necessary. The main subject of the upgrade project was a general mirror refurbishment, i.e. a new polishing and subsequently a new coating of the mirror surface with the isotope 65Cu. In parallel to the mirror refurbishment, comprehensive upgrade activities in the vacuum system, electronics and programming have been performed with the aims of protecting the new mirror coating from aging (degradation of the mirrors surface properties), transforming the instrument into a user-friendly state and introducing conceptual improvements. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.

Herrmann J.-M.,Institute for Research In Catalysis
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: This article recalls and demonstrates that heterogeneous photocatalysis belongs to heterogeneous catalysis according to its initial history. There are criteria, which have to be imperatively taken into account to deal with true (photo-)catalytic reactions. The photocatalytic activity, chosen as the reaction rate, is governed by five physical parameters (mass of catalyst, wavelength, initial concentrations (or pressures) of the reactants, temperature (around room temperature), and radiant flux). Discussion: Once performed in optimal conditions, the reaction has to be characterized with (a) its quantum yield (ratio of the reaction rate to the incident photon flux), (b) the turnover number (number of molecules converted per active site during a given time), and (c) the turnover frequency ( per second). The true catalytic nature demands that the conversion provides a number of converted molecules higher than the "stoichiometric threshold" defined as the number of the active sites initially present on the catalyst, i. e., that be much greater than 1, and possibly than at least two or three orders of magnitude. Eventually, a complete mass balance determination should be established for all elements. It is shown that the main reaction intermediates are radicals. All these concepts and principles are illustrated by various examples (selective mild oxidation reactions, water pollutants elimination, and air purification), leading to a list of recommendations for performing really true catalytic reactions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Guczi L.,Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry of Hungary | Beck A.,Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry of Hungary | Paszti Z.,Institute for Research In Catalysis
Catalysis Today | Year: 2012

In this contribution the general rules and the exceptions in the area of gold catalysis are discussed in order to establish a correlation between the size of the catalytically active element and its reactivity towards different classes of substrate molecules. The general behaviour of gold is that it is inactive in massive form while it can be used as a highly active catalyst when downsized. Throughout this paper experimental data from different sources are collected to proof that - according to this general behaviour - small molecules (CO, NO, etc.) can be activated only on small nanoparticles or roughened Au(1 1 1) surfaces, whereas Au(1 1 1) single crystals or extended metal films are active in the reaction of large molecules. This observation defines the applicability area of gold nanoparticles and the activity of large gold surfaces, films or single crystals. The above effect can be modulated by interfacial interaction between gold species and active oxide either if gold is deposited directly on them or is supported on inactive oxides (such as model SiO 2/Si(1 0 0) or high surface area amorphous or mesoporous silica) with minute amounts of promoter oxide. The oxide may invoke electronic interaction and simultaneously the defect structure of oxides likely has a key issue in the formation and stabilization of Au nanoparticles. On the other hand, it turned out that in some cases - independently of the interface - the key issue is the available gold area of Au nanoparticles dictating the reaction rate of a substrate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SPIRE-05-2015 | Award Amount: 4.42M | Year: 2015

TERRA project aims to develop, from TRL 3 to 5, a tandem electrocatalytic reactor (TER) coupling an oxidation reaction to a reduction reaction, with thus the great potential advantage of i) saving resources and energy (needed to produce the oxidant and reductants for the two separate reactions), and ii) intensify the process (reduce the nr. of steps, coupling two synthesis processes and especially eliminating those to prepare the oxidation and reduction agents). The proposal address one of SPIRE Roadmap Key Actions New ways of targeting energy input via electrochemical. The TER unit may be used in a large field of applications, but will be developed for a specific relevant case: the synthesis of PEF (PolyEthylene Furanoate), a next generation plastic. TERRA project aims to make a step forward in this process by coupling the FDCA and MEG synthesis in a single novel TER reactor, with relevant process intensification. Between the elements of innovation of the approach are: i) operation at higher T,P than conventional electrochemical devices for chemical manufacturing, ii) use of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts, iii) use of novel 3D-type electrodes to increase productivity, iv) use of electrode with modulation of activity, v) possibility to utilize external bias (from unused electrical renewable energy) to enhance flexibility of operations. In addition to scale-up reactor and test under environmental relevant conditions (TRL 5), the approach in TERRA project is to address the critical elements to pass from lab-scale experimentation to industrial prototype with intensified productivity. These developments are critical for a wider use of electrochemical manufacturing in chemical and process industries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2012.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.71M | Year: 2012

The Eco2CO2 project aims at exploiting a photo-electro-chemical (PEC) CO2 conversion route for the synthesis of methanol as a key intermediate for the production of fine chemicals (fragrances, flavourings, adhesives, monomers,) in a lignocellulosic biorefinery. A distinct improvement in the ecological footprint of the envisaged chemical industries will thus be achieved by: i) boosting the potential of lignocellulosic biorefineries by exploiting secondary by-products such as furfurals or lignin; ii) providing a small but non-negligible contribution to the reduction of CO2 release into the atmosphere by exploitation of sunlight as an energy source. The most crucial development in the project will be the development of a PEC reactor capable of converting CO2 into methanol by exploiting water and sun light with a targeted conversion efficiency exceeding 6%, with reference to wavelengths above 400 nm, and an expected durability of 10.000 h. The above specifications must be reached without using expensive noble metals or precious materials which should enable costs of the PEC panels lower than 60 Euro/m2 including the installation. Catalytic reactions of methanol and furfural to produce perfuming agents via partial oxidation or methylation, as well as of lignin or lignin depolymerisation derivatives to produce adhesives or monomers (e.g. p-xylene) will undergo a R&D programme to achieve cost effective production of green fine chemicals, proven by the end of the project via lab bench tests of at least 100 g/h production rates. Based on early calculations, if successful, the Eco2CO2 technologies should be capable of inducing avoided CO2 emissions by the year 2020 as high as 50 Mtons/year worldwide.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: NMP.2011.4.0-5 | Award Amount: 499.06K | Year: 2012

The objective of the proposal is to support the creation of a European structured research area for catalytic and magnetic nanomaterials by integrating two DISs (ERIC and EIMM) operating in the fields of catalysts and nanomagnetism, and their plan to expand current activities in order to (1) obtain a larger coverage of industrial technologies/sectors and (2) extend the involvement to the activities of the relevant industrial partners. The aim is to create a realistic basis to achieve financial sustainability of the two DISs which will keep their own individual personality, but share knowledge and expertise, structure, equipment and other resources, to offer a broader and cost-effective range of services to companies, and in the long-term the vision is to provide new competences (deriving from the integrated collaboration) to new industrial sectors such as materials for nanomedicine, health care and diagnostics, to ICT, environment protection, and nanomaterials risk. Functional to this objective are also the possibilities a) to realize efficient synergies to reduce the management costs of the DISs, and to be more cost-effective for a structuring effect inside ERA, b) create a larger critical mass, and a broader spectrum of expertise and equipment, c) improve the attractiveness towards young researchers through a combination of high-profile science and educational activities in their favor, and d) enhance the visibility and develop more efficient politics for incorporating new partners in order to progressively expand the actual core partners. Reaching the objectives, implementing these activities will thus result in 1) an improved coordination in both research and innovation, through the management and cultural synergies between the two DISs (ERIC and EIMM); 2) a more robust critical mass of the durable integrated structure; 3) a boosted dynamism of research, technological development and innovation in the field(s); and 4) an improved structuring of the European Research Area.

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